Hunting and gathering wild food
Salmon, wapato, pine nuts and acorn flour
These foods varied according to the environment where each group of people lived. Inuit people, who lived in the far north along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean and in Alaska, ate a lot of fish and seal meat, and gathered seaweed. Chinook people, who lived a little further south in the Pacific Northwest (modern Oregon and Washington) ate a lot of salmon, and wapato, which was a lot like potatoes. Further south, Californian and Paiute people ate a lot of bread made from pine nuts or acorns.
Bison, birds, cactus fruit, and sunflower seeds
In the south-west (modern Arizona and New Mexico), Pueblo people ate cactus fruit and pine nuts, and hunted rabbits and birds for meat. The people who lived in the Rocky Mountains and the Great Plains, like the Blackfoot and the Ute, ate a lot of mammoth, at first, and then when the mammoth all died out, they started to eat a lot of bison meat. They dried and smoked the bison meat so they could eat it for a long time after a hunt, making beef jerky. Ute and Paiute people also ate a lot of pine nuts, which they gathered from the trees, and sunflower seeds.
Wild rice and chestnuts
Further east, along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, people also ate a lot of fish and gathered nuts and berries. Along the Great Lakes, Cree people ate fish with wild rice that they gathered in the wetlands around the lakes.
Venison, pigeon, and turkey
And on the East Coast, the Iroquois and the Algonquin ate venison (deer meat) and fish, and also pigeon and turkey and rabbit. Sometimes they ate bear, which was important even though it was hard to get, because it had a lot of fat, and the deer and fish didn’t. Like the Californians, they gathered acorns to make bread, and they also made bread out of sunflower seeds and chestnuts.
Honey, maple sugar and sweet potatoes
To sweeten their food, East Coast people used maple sugar and maple syrup, and also wild honey. Cooks put maple sugar in bread, stew, tea, and vegetables, and people sprinkled it on top of their berries. In the south-east, Cherokee people ate a lot of turtle, fish, and venison, sweet potatoes and also acorn and chestnut bread.
What was pemmican?
An important food for people who were travelling or hunting was pemmican, a sort of energy bar made of berries and chopped meat, that people could eat without having to stop and cook anything.
Native American farming: corn, beans, squash, and peppers
But around 1000 BC, people began to eat very differently in North America. The Pueblo people began to farm about this time. They got corn and beans and squash from the pre-Olmec people of Mexico, and they began to eat a lot of these three crops (the “Three Sisters“) instead of the wild foods. People made corn into a flat bread, like modern tacos and tortillas, and rolled up mashed beans inside these wrappers (The beans were the same pinto beans we eat in enchiladas today, but they also had kidney beans and lima beans), with other vegetables like green peppers.
Farming sweet potatoes, peanuts, and sunflower seeds
Farming soon spread to other parts of North America, and by 1000 AD most people in the Mississippi Valley and along the East Coast were eating a lot of corn, beans and squash (the Three Sisters) along with their wild food. The Cherokee and Mississippi people grew sweet potatoes and peanuts, too. Along the East Coast, people also ate a lot of sunflower seeds that they grew, and used sunflower oil.
What was succotash?
What did Native Americans like to drink?
Whether they were farming or not, everybody’s main drink was water. When they could, though, many people liked to drink herbal tea better than just plain water. People made tea with sassafras, or added pumpkin blossoms or corn silk to thicken their water. People in California added lemonade berries to their water to make a sour drink like modern lemonade.
Did you find out what you wanted to know about Native American food? Let us know in the comments!
Learn by doing: eating pemmican
More about the Three Sisters
American Food after the Europeans invaded
Native North American Foods And Recipes, by Kathryn Smithyman (2005).
Turkeys, Pilgrims, and Indian Corn: The Story of the Thanksgiving Symbols, by Edna Barth (2000).