History of Gunpowder: Gunpowder in ancient China

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Fireworks and a Chinese dragon: History of gunpowder

History of gunpowder: Fireworks

Who invented gunpowder?

Like the idea of zero, gunpowder developed gradually over time. In 142 AD, during the Han Dynasty, a man named Wei Boyang was the first to write anything about gunpowder. He wrote about a mixture of three powders that would “fly and dance” violently. We aren’t sure that he meant gunpowder, but that’s the only explosive that uses three ingredients that we know of. He may have been a Taoist trying to find a potion to let you live forever.

Ingredients of gunpowder

By 300 AD, a Jin dynasty scientist named Ge Hong had certainly written down the ingredients of gunpowder and described the explosion. Scientists made gunpowder in ancient China by mixing sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter, or potassium nitrate. You got sulphur by mining it out of the ground, where it exists naturally as a yellowish rock. You could make potassium nitrate, or saltpeter, by taking animal manure and letting it sit around for a while and decay. Then potassium nitrate crystals formed in the manure, and you could drain them off by washing water through the manure pile. You mixed the three powders together, using about fifteen parts of saltpeter to three parts of charcoal and two parts of sulphur. The reason gunpowder explodes is that it burns very fast, and when it burns it releases gases that are bigger in volume than the original powder (just the way steam is bigger than water is).

Chinese bronze cannon

A small bronze cannon from Gansu (about 1220 AD)

Gunpowder leaves China

The Chinese emperors tried to keep gunpowder as a secret weapon, but by the 1100s AD their secret had gotten out, and people in the Islamic Empire and then the Roman Empire started to understand how to use gunpowder for weapons. After that, it wasn’t long before people in Europe also learned how to use gunpowder. Nobody is sure exactly how they found out, but it might have something to do with the Third Crusade.

European gun that shoots arrows

History of gunpowder: Earliest image of a European gun (1326). The gun shoots arrows.

By 1216 AD, a monk named Roger Bacon in England described gunpowder as a weapon. He thought of it as something that came from foreign places. Unfortunately for the people of West Africa, they hadn’t heard about gunpowder yet when European people attacked them in the 1400s AD, which is one reason why the Europeans were able to defeat them.

Did you find out what you wanted to know about the history of gunpowder? Let us know in the comments.

Learn by doing: go see a fireworks show
Chinese Science
Or Chinese Mathematics
Chinese Astronomy

Bibliography and further reading about Chinese science:

The Nine Chapters (a Chinese math textbook)
Chinese astronomy
More Chinese science
Ancient China
Quatr.us home

By | 2017-12-06T12:13:47+00:00 June 7th, 2017|China, Science, War|13 Comments
Cite this page: Carr, K.E. History of Gunpowder: Gunpowder in ancient China. Quatr.us Study Guides, June 7, 2017. Web. December 12, 2017.

About the Author:

Karen Carr

Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.


  1. Matthew December 9, 2017 at 12:34 am - Reply

    Hey I was wondering if maybe you could post your sources on this. I am a UCLA student writing a final paper on gunpowder, it would be really helpful. Thanks!

    • Matthew December 9, 2017 at 12:36 am

      Whoops just noticed the bibliography! Disregard!

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 9, 2017 at 11:39 pm

      Oh, I’m glad that worked out for you! Best of luck with your paper.

  2. Jhon December 6, 2017 at 11:22 am - Reply


  3. Bo December 5, 2017 at 5:55 pm - Reply


  4. Me November 30, 2017 at 6:12 pm - Reply

    No really I need more info

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr November 30, 2017 at 8:24 pm

      What would you like to know? I’ll be happy to answer if I can.

  5. Me November 30, 2017 at 6:03 pm - Reply


  6. gdftgerd November 29, 2017 at 2:22 pm - Reply


    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr November 30, 2017 at 3:32 pm

      Hi yourself! Thanks for stopping by.

  7. gg November 27, 2017 at 4:35 pm - Reply


    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr November 27, 2017 at 10:02 pm

      Hi yourself! Thanks for stopping by!

  8. lala November 8, 2017 at 3:35 pm - Reply


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