Who invented paper? Ancient China and the history of paper

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Early Chinese paper: History of paper

History of paper: Early Chinese paper

Paper invented in China

Since the invention of writing, people had been trying to come up with something easier to write on than papyrus or parchment, and also something easier and cheaper to make. But it took 3000 years to come up with paper! Paper was invented around 100 BC in China. In 105 AD, under the Han Dynasty emperor Ho-Ti, a government official in China named Ts’ai Lun was the first to start a paper-making industry.

How Ts’ai Lun made paper

Ts’ai Lun seems to have made his paper by mixing finely chopped mulberry bark and hemp rags with water, mashing it flat, and then pressing out the water and letting it dry in the sun. He may have based his idea on bark cloth, which was very common in China and also made from mulberry bark. Ts’ai Lun’s paper was a big success, and began to be used all over China. With paper available, Buddhist monks in China began to work on ways of mass-producing prayers. By 650 AD they were block-printing prayers.

Paper reaches Japan, Korea, and Iran

An early playing card (Ming Dynasty, ca. 1500 AD)

An early playing card (Ming Dynasty, ca. 1500 AD)

Even after people in China began to use paper, it took another thousand years before people were using paper all over Eurasia. By the 400s AD, people in India were also making paper, and by the 600s paper had reached Korea and Japan too. With the expansion of the Islamic Empire into Pakistan about 700 AD, people in the Abbasid Caliphate also began to use paper. For the traders of the Silk Road, paper had a big advantage: it absorbed ink, so you couldn’t erase it. That made forgery harder.

Paper, books, and movable type

At first traders bought their paper from China, Central Asia, and India. But by 800 AD Islamic manufacturers were making their own paper. As paper reached West Asia, people began to make it into books, instead of the scrolls that people used in China and India. That plan spread eastward, and by about 1000 AD, people were making books even in China and India. To go with the new book format, printers in China invented movable wooden type.

History of paper in Europe

Europeans were still using parchment, or buying paper at high prices from Egypt. But that soon changed. By 1250 AD, Egyptian paper-making technology reached Italy, and the Italians made good paper and sold it all over Europe. Then the Black Death wrecked the paper industry in Egypt. In 1338, French monks began to make their own paper. Europeans used water wheels (destroying salmon runs) to power paper mills, so they could make paper more cheaply. By the 1350s, Europeans were selling paper (along with other things like sugar and sewing thimbles) to people in North Africa and Mamluk Egypt and West Asia.

By 1411 – nearly a millennium and a half after it was invented – people in Germany began to produce their own rag paper. Once they had learned to make paper, they became more interested in also learning about Chinese printing, and a man called Gutenberg produced the first printed Bible in 1453.

(This rag paper was still much more expensive than modern paper, which is made from wood with chemicals added).

Paper invented in Mexico

By this time, people in the country of the Aztecs (modern Mexico) had also, independently, invented paper. Their paper was made out of agarve plant fibers, and people used it to make books.

New inventions using paper

Meanwhile, in China people were using paper in more and more different ways. They were using paper for kites (650 AD), playing cards (800 AD), folding fans (1100s AD), and even, by the 1300s, for toilet paper!

Did you find out what you wanted to know about the history of paper? Let us know in the comments!

Learn by doing: making your own paper
The invention of printing

Bibliography and further reading about the history of paper:

Quatr.us home

By | 2017-12-14T09:10:26+00:00 July 27th, 2017|China, Literature, Science|49 Comments
Cite this page: Carr, K.E. Who invented paper? Ancient China and the history of paper. Quatr.us Study Guides, July 27, 2017. Web. April 27, 2018.

About the Author:

Karen Carr
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.


  1. its ya boiiiiiii April 15, 2018 at 12:40 pm - Reply


  2. carley March 23, 2018 at 10:28 am - Reply

    thanks for help

    • eric March 28, 2018 at 1:58 pm

      I already know who invented paper stupid and his name is not tsai lun it is 蔡 伦

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr March 28, 2018 at 2:13 pm

      That’s just the same thing in Chinese.

  3. Jennifer March 22, 2018 at 4:53 pm - Reply

    Wow, just the perfect website my teacher says she needs us to use ONLY for our project. Just the perfect opposite of Wikipedia (which my teacher also noted NEVER to use, since anyone can edit it). I’m very proud of you! Keep up the amazing work, Ms. Carr. (BTW I’m in 6th grade)

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr March 23, 2018 at 10:38 am

      Thanks, Jennifer! That’s very kind. Good luck with your project!

  4. H March 20, 2018 at 7:45 pm - Reply

    Thks for helping

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr March 20, 2018 at 11:15 pm

      You’re welcome!

  5. ben March 16, 2018 at 7:19 am - Reply

    thx for the information

  6. joshua daniels March 15, 2018 at 7:52 am - Reply

    thx this was a lot of help

  7. Alex March 5, 2018 at 9:20 pm - Reply

    I don’t know how to cite this and I live in California so out citing is different.

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr March 5, 2018 at 10:47 pm

      The citation info is at the bottom of every article. Citation is the same everywhere: the details of formatting can be different, but your responsibility to help your reader know where you got your information is always the same.

  8. Who? March 2, 2018 at 10:27 am - Reply

    Sorry I mean Ts’ai stupid auto correct…

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr March 5, 2018 at 10:39 pm

      We don’t really know for sure – we don’t have that much information about it – but I think he was trying to make paper, because a lot of scientists were trying to improve writing materials. Lots of people wanted better writing materials, so it was an important area of research.

  9. Who? March 2, 2018 at 10:26 am - Reply

    Was Thai looking for clothes or looking to make paper?

  10. antonio February 21, 2018 at 4:44 pm - Reply

    you greatly helped me out with me project! Thanks a lot

  11. Esperanza February 14, 2018 at 11:54 am - Reply

    Is this information true?

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr February 14, 2018 at 11:56 am

      Yes. If you want to check, you can read the books listed at the end of the article.

  12. Trent February 14, 2018 at 9:55 am - Reply

    Thank you for this you helped me a LOT with my project!

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr February 14, 2018 at 10:39 am

      You’re welcome, Trent! Delighted to hear it!

  13. lucas February 5, 2018 at 1:42 pm - Reply

    Thanks this was a big help for my project!

  14. luke February 5, 2018 at 6:44 am - Reply

    yea ur awsome, thx so much u saved my grade

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr February 5, 2018 at 9:54 am

      Yay! But I’m sure it was mostly your own work, Luke!

  15. Me January 31, 2018 at 10:22 am - Reply

    hi 🙂 <3

  16. Mikayla January 31, 2018 at 7:16 am - Reply

    thank u this was so helpful for my school project 🙂

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr January 31, 2018 at 8:45 am

      You’re welcome! Don’t hesitate to ask if you have any questions.

  17. Evan January 29, 2018 at 9:45 am - Reply

    Hey thanks for the help for a school project! 😀

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr January 29, 2018 at 9:39 pm

      Happy to help, Evan! Good luck with your project!

  18. jennifer January 17, 2018 at 4:59 pm - Reply

    dude this was verry helpful thx

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr January 17, 2018 at 5:05 pm

      You’re very welcome!

  19. Heinz Hayle January 11, 2018 at 6:05 pm - Reply

    Thank you so much Professor Carr!! I am going to report about how paper is made and I need the history of how paper was invented. This was such a big help! 🙂

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr January 11, 2018 at 10:03 pm

      Oh, wonderful! I’m glad we could help. Good luck with your project!

  20. Cordelia December 19, 2017 at 10:37 am - Reply

    Thanks! I used this for research for my class! This was very helpful! 🙂

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 19, 2017 at 3:11 pm

      Wonderful! I’m so happy to hear it. Thanks for taking the time to let us know.

  21. fjbklas December 18, 2017 at 11:34 am - Reply

    thanks for the help

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 19, 2017 at 3:12 pm

      You’re welcome!

  22. Hope December 14, 2017 at 2:37 pm - Reply

    Thanks so much mucho gracias luv ya

  23. Hope December 13, 2017 at 12:52 pm - Reply

    Do you know what the chinese used it for?

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 13, 2017 at 4:58 pm

      Yes, there’s a list of things people in China used paper for in the last paragraph of the article.

  24. faith December 13, 2017 at 12:46 pm - Reply

    do you know spanish

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 13, 2017 at 4:58 pm

      I can read it but I don’t speak it very well. Why?

  25. hope December 13, 2017 at 11:19 am - Reply

    yo me llama esperanzo

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 13, 2017 at 12:41 pm

      Yes, that’s right! What a pretty name!

  26. Hope December 13, 2017 at 8:45 am - Reply

    ure awsime

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 13, 2017 at 9:59 am


  27. Hope December 12, 2017 at 2:23 pm - Reply

    Hy iym hope

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr December 12, 2017 at 2:28 pm

      Hi Hope!

  28. Hayley November 8, 2017 at 10:03 am - Reply

    Thx for the help i needed this info for class and you guys realy helped me fiigure it ouy

    • Karen Carr
      Karen Carr November 9, 2017 at 6:01 pm

      You’re welcome! Thanks for stopping by!

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