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10 09, 2017

Science in Central America and South America

By |2019-09-17T10:58:26-07:00September 10th, 2017|Central America|3 Comments

A rubber ball made by the Olmec people (about 1000 BC) Invention of rubber With different natural resources available to them, the people of South America and Central America invented different things than the people of Europe, Asia, or Africa did. Early African science South America articles Central America articles One early invention was rubber. The Olmec people invented rubber (in fact the [...]

17 08, 2017

Nuclear fission project – Physics

By |2018-05-31T11:49:25-07:00August 17th, 2017|Physics|0 Comments

Make a bunch of paper balls One atom of uranium has 92 protons and about 145 neutrons in its nucleus. So make 92 small balls of paper... no, that would be too hard. Make a bunch of small balls, the size of the tip of your finger, by crumpling up scraps of paper. You should [...]

14 08, 2017

Christmas Trees – American holidays

By |2019-04-03T11:10:14-07:00August 14th, 2017|North America, Northern Europe, Religion|0 Comments

Christmas Tree in Germany (late 1700s, by Joseph Keller) Evergreens and the winter holidays Because Christmas is related to old celebrations of the winter solstice, evergreen trees have always been popular decorations in northern countries at Christmastime. They're green when everything else is dead and white. Why do the seasons change? More about Christmas American religion All our [...]

4 08, 2017

Medieval School – Europe

By |2018-04-11T09:19:36-07:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval, People|0 Comments

Clerks in the Manessa Codex (1300 AD) In medieval Europe, even fewer kids went to school than in the Roman Empire. People were poorer, and kids had to work in the fields weeding and harvesting and taking care of pigs and chickens. Most people never learned to read or write. Richer people often home-schooled their children, especially girls and children [...]

2 08, 2017

Republic of Genoa – Medieval Italy

By |2019-07-03T09:03:22-07:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|0 Comments

Republic of Genoa: Medieval drawing of the city of Genoa, Italy (1493) Genoa in the Early Middle Ages Around 900 AD, the Holy Roman Empire began to lose control of Italy, and Genoa was among the Italian cities that got their independence about this time. Holy Roman Empire The Fatimids All our medieval Europe articles Genoa became [...]

1 08, 2017

Medieval economy – Europe

By |2018-04-24T08:21:22-07:00August 1st, 2017|Economy, Medieval|0 Comments

Medieval economy: A carpenter works in his shop. Collapse of trade After the fall of Rome, people in Europe used money less than they had before. Instead they mostly lived on what they could produce themselves. Rich people lived on what they could make other people give them because they were landlords or landladies. Money and silk [...]

27 07, 2017

Who invented paper? Ancient China and the history of paper

By |2019-09-05T06:42:05-07:00July 27th, 2017|China|104 Comments

History of paper: Early Chinese paper Paper invented in China Since the invention of writing, people had been trying to come up with something easier to write on than papyrus or parchment, and also something easier and cheaper to make. Read more about papyrus What is parchment made of? More ancient China articles But it took 3000 [...]

27 07, 2017

Yamato period – Early Medieval Japan

By |2018-10-09T10:04:28-07:00July 27th, 2017|History, Japan|0 Comments

Yamato Japan: Haniwa seated woman from a kofun tomb, possibly a Shinto religious leader (ca. 500 AD) From Yayoi to Yamato By the end of the Yayoi period (Japan's Iron Age) in 250 AD, there was probably an emperor in Japan. But the real power still lay with the rulers of many different city-states. The emperor couldn't really tell [...]

25 07, 2017

The Mamluks – Medieval Islamic history

By |2019-09-19T18:40:12-07:00July 25th, 2017|Islam|16 Comments

Mamluks: A Mamluk inn for merchants in Cairo Mamluks were enslaved soldiers The Mamluks were originally enslaved bodyguards of the Abbasid caliphs of the Islamic Empire (the word "mamluk" just means "slave" in Arabic). Starting around 850 AD, the Abbasid caliphs captured or bought young boys who were not Muslims as slaves. Who were the Abbasids? Sunni and Shiite History of [...]

24 07, 2017

Hafsid Dynasty – Medieval Islam

By |2019-08-01T10:07:11-07:00July 24th, 2017|Africa, History, Islam|0 Comments

The Hafsid Dynasty minted gold coins like this one The Hafsids replace the Almohads In the early 1200s AD, the Almohad empire fell apart into Marinid, Christian, and Hafsid kingdoms. The middle of North Africa broke away from the Almohad dynasty in 1229 AD. Modern Tunisia, western Libya, and eastern Algeria came under the leadership of Abu Zakariya. People called his [...]