Who went to school?
Schools in ancient Rome
Medieval Islamic schools
Schools in medieval China
All our medieval Europe articles
Most people never learned to read or write. Richer people often home-schooled their children, especially girls and disabled children, who were not allowed at the regular school.
What was medieval school like?
If they got to go to school, most kids started at around seven years old. Your parents had to pay for it. The teachers were usually Catholic nuns or monks or priests, sometimes Jewish rabbis, and the classroom was usually the local church or monastery or convent or synagogue. In Islamic Spain, local mosques ran excellent schools.
Many schools only took boys, but some let girls learn too (in separate classes). Some classes had only one or two kids, but others were as large as a hundred kids. School started when the sun came up and lasted until the sun went down – longer in summer, shorter in winter. Most kids sat on the floor, or on piles of straw. Like earlier teachers, medieval teachers often beat the children with sticks or tortured them in other ways.
What did kids learn in school?
Whatever language kids spoke at home, at school they learned to read and write in Latin, the language of the Church, or in Hebrew if they were Jewish, or Arabic in Islamic Spain. Books were very expensive in early medieval Europe. Only very rich kids could ever own a book.
History of paper
What is parchment?
How about papyrus?
History of wax and tablets
Make your own wax tablet
Most kids learned by listening to the teacher say something and then memorizing it and repeating it. People usually wrote with a sharp stick on wax tablets. But by the 1000s, Europeans were able to import paper from Egypt, and by 1250 Italians were making their own paper, and books started to be more accessible.
Kids in India and West Asia were using Arabic numbers during this time, but in Europe people were still using Roman numbers. That made it hard to do math, so most kids didn’t learn much math – just how to count out loud. Some older kids did learn a little botany, astronomy, philosophy, logic, and how to make good speeches.
Teenagers usually stopped going to school, but if you went on you could go to a grammar school, where you would learn Latin grammar. Even fewer people – mostly people who were going to be monks or rabbis – went on to college or yeshiva. Some serious scholars travelled to Islamic Spain or to North Africa or Egypt to study there.