Where does rice come from?
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History of Rice

rice
A bowl of rice

May 2016 - Rice is a kind of grain, or grass, like wheat, millet, or barley, which provides carbohydrates to people who eat its seeds. It grows wild in south-east Asia. People probably first began to farm rice in southern China, about 6000 BC. From there, people learned how to grow rice further south in Thailand and in India. By 2500 BC, in the Bronze Age, people were growing rice in the Ganges valley in northern India. Rice probably reached West Asia and Greece about 300 BC with Silk Road traders. The Greek word for rice comes from the Indian word, vrihi, and all the other European words for rice come from the Greek word. By the time of the Roman Empire, people were growing some rice around the Mediterranean Sea, in southern Europe and North Africa including Egypt (but not as much as in China or India). By 800 AD, thanks to trade with India and Indonesia, people in East Africa were also growing rice. Soon people were growing rice all over southern Africa, and by the Middle Ages people grew rice in West Africa too.

rice paddy
Rice paddy in China

Even as early as 6000 BC, when they were first beginning to grow rice, Chinese farmers were already using the paddies to grow rice. A rice paddy is a system of growing rice in artificial (man-made) ponds, which saves water and also helps to kill weeds. You don't have to grow rice this way - you can just plant it like wheat - but you get more rice with less land and less water (but more work) if you use paddies.


Men harvesting rice in China

In the Late Middle Ages in Europe, people (correctly) blamed rice and the standing water in rice paddies for causing malaria by giving the mosquitoes a good place to lay their eggs. Many towns discouraged farmers from planting rice to try to prevent malaria.

two black women slaves pounding in a large wooden mortar
Enslaved women pounding rice in the Carolinas

When British settlers came to North America in the 1600s AD, they brought rice with them, and planted it in the south-east part of the continent where the climate was right for it (modern North and South Carolina). In the 1660s, British settlers forced the Cherokee off their land in order to grow rice on it. West African people who were forced to come to North America as slaves also brought rice with them. By the 1700s a lot of farmers were growing rice in North and South Carolina and exporting it to Europe (mainly to Germany, but also to Spain and Portugal). Rice fields helped to spread malaria in North America too.
After the Civil War, in the late 1800s, with their slaves free, the rich planters gave up growing rice in the Carolinas, but other people began to grow rice across the rest of the South, especially in Louisiana and Mississippi, and parts of Texas and California. But most people in Europe and North America continued to eat more bread and noodles than rice, and most people in South America continued to eat more corn, and it was people in southern Asia and southern Africa who ate most of the rice.

People usually cook rice by boiling or steaming it to make it soft. You can eat rice plain, or with a sauce of vegetables or meat or fish, or sweetened and baked into rice pudding. Or you can crush rice into a powder and use it to make rice noodles. Rice is a good source of carbohydrates (energy).

Learn by doing - how to make rice
More about Chinese food

Bibliography and further reading about rice:

Or read the Encyclopedia Britannica's article on rice.

Tofu fried rice
Stuffed Zucchini
Black-Eyed Peas and Rice
Squash Risotto
Unstuffed Cabbage
More about Chinese food
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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