This week: Rosh Hashonah answers questions history/science facts

Welcome to!

Projects and Pages for the end of September:

Apples and honey...

ROSH HASHANAH: Shana Tova! Happy New Year! October 3rd is (finally) Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year. We also have articles about Jewish topics like rabbis, synagogues, and the Talmud. Read about the history of the traditional Rosh Hashanah foods: apples and honey. And try our terrific recipe for challah bread!

GREAT LEADERS: With the Presidential debate this week, here's a few of history's great political leaders to hold up as patterns - there's the Iraqi king Sargon of Akkad, the Iranian Cyrus the Great, the Greeks Alcibiades and Alexander the Great, the Chinese Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, the African Hannibal, the Italian Matilda of Canossa, the Egyptian Saladin, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Hamida Banu in India.

mosaic battle scene with long spears
Alexander at Gaugamela

ALEXANDER THE GREAT: October 1st, 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela, essentially getting control of the Persian Empire.

VERCINGETORIX - October 3rd, 52 BC - Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Roman leader Julius Caesar at Alesia, pretty much completing the Roman conquest of Gaul (now France).

WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR: September 28th, 1066 AD - William the Conqueror sails from France across the English Channel and invades England, starting the Norman Conquest.

SALADIN: October 2nd, 1187 AD - The Ayyubid sultan Saladin captures Jerusalem, ending Crusader rule over the city.

muslim man sitting cross-legged

JESUITS: September 27th, 1540 AD - The Jesuits become an official organization in Europe when the Pope gives them a charter: they start by making Catholicism cool again, but go on to organize the Inquisition, many excellent schools, and colonialism (so it's a mixed bag).

WHAT TO DO THIS WEEK: Watch the first presidential debate tonight - who will you vote for?

(Want more like this? Email us to sign up for' email newsletter!)

New pages this week:

EGYPTIAN WARFARE: Check out our newly revised page on war and weapons in ancient Egypt - we've added new information about the importance of bows and arrows to Egyptian armies.

New discoveries this week:

NEANDERTHAL JEWELRY: Every time we hear from the Neanderthals, they get smarter: first they were using red ochre and burying their dead; now they're making jewelry. Though it's still possible the jewelry was a gift from modern humans.

JAPANESE FISH-HOOKS: Once again, new discoveries show how seriously Paleolithic people took fishing - this time it's fish-hooks from Japan, carefully carved out of sea-shells.

OTZI MURDERED: In a reminder of how much more violent a world Bronze Age people lived in, it appears that Ozti the Iceman was murdered by a sneak attack, about 3300 BC, while he was resting after a big lunch. Read more about life in Europe about this time - all about salt, pigs, sausage, bacon, and ham.

CHINESE IN ROMAN BRITAIN?: People have been all excited about reports that Chinese people lived in Roman London, but the evidence is pretty unclear (and not from DNA analysis).

Help support! is entirely supported by your generous donations and by our sponsors. Most donors give about $10. Can you give $10 today to keep this site running? Or give $50 to sponsor a page?

Seasonal food of the week:

ROSH HASHANAH: To celebrate Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, the traditional foods are apples and honey, and challah bread. Apples are great just sliced, or with cheddar or hummus, but also try making applesauce or baked apples, or try this foolproof grated apple pie.

Also check out our seasonal and budget recipes at

Or, view an extensive range of science and history based educational and learning toys by visiting now.

(Want more like this? Email us to sign up for' email newsletter!)

Thank you to for their support!

Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

Help support! (formerly "History for Kids") is entirely supported by your generous donations and by our sponsors. Most donors give about $10. Can you give $10 today to keep this site running? Or give $50 to sponsor a page? supports Black Lives Matter - here are some suggestions for how you can too! Read more about the history of Africans and African-Americans with our articles on the economy of medieval Africa, African scientific discoveries, black Americans and the Constitution, African-American slavery, the cotton gin, and the civil rights movement.