Jesus - the historical Jesus
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Life of Jesus


The birth of Jesus (Ivory carving from the 500s AD)

Everything we know about the life of Jesus comes from the Bible. Jesus' name is not mentioned in any other source written during his lifetime, or within the lifetimes of people who might have known him (More about this). According to the Bible, Jesus was born during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus, about 4 BC (there is some disagreement about exactly when). He was born in Israel, in the town of Bethlehem according to the Bible, and he grew up near Bethlehem, in Nazareth. When he was about 30, in the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius, Jesus took to preaching in public like his cousin John the Baptist.

Jesus had many new ideas to talk about. He told people that after the Last Judgment at the end of time they would either go to Heaven or go to Hell. He told people that faith in God, and in Jesus as the son of God, were the most important ways of getting into Heaven. He said that God no longer wanted animal sacrifices, because Jesus himself was going to be the biggest sacrifice ever, and if you believed in Jesus then his sacrifice would be for you too.


Jesus raises the dead man Lazarus back to the living
world (mosaic from Ravenna, 500s AD)

Like some other men of his time, Jesus acted like a holy man. He wore simple clothes, and wouldn't take money for anything he did for people. He healed sick people, and he travelled around.


Judas betrays Jesus with a kiss
(mosaic from Ravenna, 500s AD)

After a few years of preaching, (again according to the Bible) Jesus got in trouble with the Jewish leaders in Israel. They didn't believe he was the son of God, and so they didn't like him going around telling people that. The Jewish leaders asked the Roman governor of the province, Pontius Pilate (whose name does appear in an inscription found by archaeologists), to get rid of Jesus, and, afraid that Jesus might be leading a rebellion against Rome, Pilate ordered his soldiers to hang Jesus from a cross until he was dead (this was a normal Roman punishment for criminals).

Bibliography and further reading about the history of Christianity:

The Apostles and Saint Paul
More about Christianity
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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With Mother's Day coming up, remember the Mother Goddesses: Mut, Isis, Gaia, Hera, Demeter, Parvati, and the Corn Mother. And honor powerful mothers: Ankhesenpepi II, Agrippina, Wu Chao, Blanche of Castile, Catherine de' Medici, Hamida Banu and Nur Jahan, Nurbanu Sultan, Sofia Baffo, Xiaozhuang, Anne of Austria. A great Mother's Day story: Kleobis and Biton.