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World history timeline: from Jesus to 400 AD

By | 2017-10-14T14:56:41+00:00 September 10th, 2017|History, Romans, When|

Roman amphitheater (El Jem, Tunisia) The great empires formed during the last years before Christ continued peacefully through much of this period. In India, the Mauryan Empire collapsed. There was a period of smaller kingdoms. But by 319 AD northern India reunited under the Guptan Empire. In China, the Han Dynasty lasted until 220 AD, but then fell apart [...]

Empires timeline – 500 BC to Jesus

By | 2017-10-14T14:57:15+00:00 September 10th, 2017|History, Romans, When|

Achilles bandaging the wounded Achilles binding up the wounds of Patroclos (Athens, red-figure vase, 500 BC -now in Berlin) All over the world, the time between 500 BC and 1 BC was a time of unification. People traded with each other. And they built big empires. Cyrus the Great's unification of the Persian Empire brought peace and stability [...]

What is lead? A heavy kind of metal

By | 2017-09-06T13:04:22+00:00 September 6th, 2017|Religion, Romans, Science|

A Roman anchor from Palermo, Italy Lead is a kind of metal that is very heavy. (See if you can get some lead, like a fishing weight, to see how heavy it is). People have been mining lead and using it for weights in West Asia since about 4000 BC, about the same time people started to use copper, and before [...]

Roman army from the Republic to the fall of Rome

By | 2017-09-05T02:09:04+00:00 September 5th, 2017|Romans, War|

Testudo formation on the Column of Trajan, Rome Roman soldiers learned how to do a lot of complicated movements so that they could fight better. One of the most famous was the testudo or "turtle".  All the soldiers used their shields to make a sort of shell all around the unit, as you [...]

Roman wars and warfare – the Roman military

By | 2017-09-05T00:07:32+00:00 September 5th, 2017|Romans, War|

Roman soldiers on the Column of Marcus Aurelius, Rome The Romans were (along with some Greek city-states) among the first people on Earth to pay their soldiers a regular salary so that they could be full-time soldiers instead of only fighting when they could spare the time from their farms. At first, the Romans had part-time soldiers like the Carthaginians and [...]

Roman sewage – ancient Roman toilets, poop, pipes

By | 2017-09-05T00:04:39+00:00 September 5th, 2017|Romans, Science|

A Roman latrine In larger Roman towns, people often got sick or died from drinking water that had sewage in it. Sewage is human waste - poop or pee. When people drink water with poop in it, they can get other people's germs. They may get sick with dysentery or die. To fix this problem, many Roman towns built aqueducts. [...]

Roman sailing – boats in the Roman empire

By | 2017-09-04T23:57:44+00:00 September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|

Roman sailing ship with square sails (100s AD, Bardo Museum, Tunisia) Until the First Punic War, in 264 BC, the Romans had not been sailors, and had never had a navy. But when they had to fight the Carthaginians, who were descended from the Phoenicians and were great sailors, the Romans learned to build ships by copying a [...]

Ptolemy – Roman astronomy – history of science

By | 2017-09-04T21:56:11+00:00 September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|

A copy of Ptolemy's map of the world Ptolemy was born in Egypt in about 90 AD, when the Romans were ruling Egypt. He was a Roman citizen. Probably he was the son or grandson of a Roman government slave - maybe a clerk - who was freed and got citizenship. As a boy, Ptolemy went to Greek schools in Alexandria and wrote in Greek. When [...]

Galen and Roman medicine – doctors in ancient Rome

By | 2017-09-04T21:46:35+00:00 September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|

Roman surgical instruments Roman medicine is really West Asian and African medicine. That's because most of the great doctors of the Roman Empire lived in West Asia (in Turkey and Syria), or in Africa (in Egypt), not in Europe. These doctors started from earlier Egyptian, Indian, and Greek medical research. Like Egyptian doctors, Roman doctors like the [...]

Roman numeral answers – Roman math

By | 2017-09-04T21:37:29+00:00 September 4th, 2017|Math, Romans|

Roman tax collector calculating someone's taxes on an abacus (Metz, ca. 225 AD) Did you figure it out? Poor Claudia died when she was 25 years old, seven months, and fourteen days. It's very likely that she died giving birth to a baby, though it could have been dysentery or cancer or another [...]