After the Civil War, in 1865, the United States changed its Constitution to make slavery illegal. For a few years, black people were able to vote. Black men served in Congress. But soon northern people lost interest in helping the black people. Racist white people forced the black people to stop voting and pushed them out of Congress. But also after the Civil War the United States government got to have much more power over the states than it had before. Now the states had to do what the United States government said, unless the Supreme Court said it was against the Constitution.
In the western part of North America, however, many people had their own governments. They were not part of the United States or Canada. The Navajo, the Ute, the Sioux, the Blackfeet, the Chinook and the Inuit are good examples. Among these people, most government was at the level of the chiefdom. But the Sioux began to unite under chiefs like Sitting Bull.
In the late 1800s, more and more poor people began to live in cities and work in factories. Poor city men became important to winning elections. (Women still couldn’t vote.) To get their votes, men who wanted to be mayors or congressmen or presidents promised to fix up the poor parts of cities where these men lived. The Progressive movement got started.
Progressive people thought that the states and the United States government should work harder to help poor people. Mayors and congressmen should tell businesses how to treat their workers. They should regulate how much to pay the workers. Officials should decide what kinds of houses poor people should live in. They should make sure that their food and water were clean and safe. All kids should be able to go to school. During this time, the government did work on a lot of these problems.
By 1900, the United States and Canada forced most of the people of the western part of North America on to reservations or under the power of the United States or Canada. But there were still some independent Inuit, Paiute, and Nez Perce groups. And the Navajo and Pueblo people still lived on their own land.