Early Modern African economy
In the late 1400s AD, Portuguese traders figured out how to sail to West Africa instead of getting there by caravan routes across the Sahara Desert. West African traders sold these newcomers mostly enslaved people, but also locally made cotton cloth, colored seashells, ivory, gold, and copper. In exchange, West Africans bought guns, salt, sugar, brass, steel knives and sewing needles, and Indian cotton cloth. Portuguese traders also brought new foods to West Africa, especially chili peppers, peanuts, and yuca root. West African kings hired Portuguese soldiers as mercenaries to fight in West African wars.
Britain takes over the trade
By the early 1600s, British traders under Queen Elizabeth I had mostly forced the Portuguese and Spanish ships out of African trade. British traders kept on buying and selling the same things, but they added rum. West African cotton cloth kept on being produced and exported through the 1700s. Traders sold it in Brazil and the Caribbean.
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