The Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasids

In 750 AD, the Abbasid caliphs murdered all of the surviving Umayyad men but one, and took over ruling the Islamic Empire. The Abbasids were less interested in the Mediterranean coast than the Umayyads had been, and the Abbasids therefore tended to concentrate more on the plains of Iraq and Iran, and less on the coast: Israel, Syria, and Lebanon, and Egypt. But towards the east, the Abbasids quickly came up against the Tang Dynasty Chinese, who were also expanding their empire at this time. Though the Arabs won a great battle against the Chinese in 751, near Samarkand in Central Asia, the border stayed about the same from then on.

In 762 AD the Abbasids moved their capital east from Damascus in Syria to the new city of Baghdad (the h is silent) in Iraq (which is still the capital of Iraq today). This shift can be seen as another example of the West Asian conflict between an orientation toward the land and an orientation toward the sea.
Baghdad was soon a big international city, where people spoke Aramaic, Arabic, and Persian. Many different groups of people lived there: Arabs, Persians, Jews, and Greeks. Many different gods were worshipped: there were Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians, in addition to the Islamic majority. By the 800s Baghdad probably had nearly half a million people (that is half as big as Rome during the Roman Empire), and was the largest city in the world outside of China.

The one surviving Umayyad man fled from Damascus around the Mediterranean to Spain, where he founded the Umayyad Caliphate of Spain, and he and his successors ruled Spain for many years.
The Abbasids ruled all of West Asia and North Africa from 750 AD . About 830, they conquered Sicily and southern Italy, too. They held on to most of the Mediterranean Sea until about 1000, when they began to weaken. First North Africa broke away and formed independent kingdoms under the Fatimids. Then gradually the governors of each province - like the Samanids - began to act more and more independently, and the Turkish generals of the armies became less and less under the control of the Caliphs. The Seljuk generals began to take over, and by 1055 the Abbasid caliphs didn't really have any power anymore. The successes of the First Crusade in 1096 in taking over Jerusalem and much of Israel and Lebanon are due largely to the gradual decline of Abbasid power. Then about 1100 AD, the Normans conquered Italy and Sicily. In 1258 AD the Abbasid dynasty ended.

Learn by doing: build the Samarra minaret out of sand
Go on to the Seljuks

Bibliography and further reading about the Abbasids:

or this article in the Encyclopedia Britannica

More Islamic History
Main Islam page



Who runs

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

More about Professor Carr's work on the Portland State University website

Help support! is entirely supported by your generous donations and by our sponsors. Most donors give about $10. Can you give $10 today to keep this site running? Or give $50 to sponsor a page?

Today's special find from Amazon:

This is a great kit: mold your own human skeleton, put it together, attach the magnets and stick it to your fridge! Learn what's inside your body.

The Story of began in 1995 as a student project funded by Portland State University. For the last fifteen years, (formerly "History for Kids") has been entirely independent of the University, using ads to keep the service free. now has about 3000 articles, all researched and written inhouse by university professors; we try to add a new article every day. About 30,000 people a day visit (that's about a million people a month!), from every country in the world. Our many awards include the Encyclopedia Britannica's Best of Web 2009.

Science Topics and Donations Biology Physics Weather Geology Mathematics Chemistry Astronomy Donations

Keep in touch with!

Send us an email now and we'll add you to our mailing list - new ideas and projects, announcements of new archaeological and scientific discoveries, seasonal offers and project ideas, and special gifts.

Sign up for' email newsletter

October's history and science ideas for you to take home:

Thanks for visiting! Check out today's current events post