First Crusade

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High Middle Ages – 800 AD to 1100 AD

By |2018-04-21T12:09:39+00:00September 10th, 2017|History, Medieval|

Lewis chessmen, carved in walrus ivory in the 1100s AD, probably in Norway, and found in Scotland About 1000 AD, the world's climate got a few degrees warmer. This small climate change caused many other changes. In North America, Tuniit people moved south from the Arctic into Greenland. But then the Inuit wiped them out. The Inuit were probably trading [...]

Jews in Medieval Europe – History

By |2018-04-18T23:33:48+00:00August 24th, 2017|History, Medieval, Religion|

Jewish money-lenders in medieval France The Middle Ages in Europe were a difficult time for the Jews. Many Jews lived in Western Europe between about 1000 and 1500 AD, but all the rulers were Christians, and almost all the people who had any power were Christians. These Christians thought Jews were different and strange. They suspected Jews of [...]

Anna Comnena’s Alexiad – Byzantine literature

By |2017-08-03T21:02:22+00:00August 3rd, 2017|Literature, Medieval|

Anna Comnena, author of the Alexiad Anna Comnena was born a princess in 1083 AD, the oldest child of the Byzantine emperor Alexios. She was named for her grandmother, the powerful empress Anna, who ruled the Empire whenever Alexios was away fighting wars. This Anna raised her granddaughter, little Anna, with the hope that she would [...]

High Middle Ages – European history

By |2018-04-12T00:08:13+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Devils torture the damned in Hell (Abbey of Moissac, about 1050 AD) The Seljuks destabilize Europe's neighbors In 1071 AD, the Byzantine Empire lost most of Anatolia (modern Turkey) to the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert. About the same time, the Abbasids lost control of pieces of the Islamic Empire as well. The Seljuks took over the East, and [...]

Norman Conquest of England – Medieval Europe

By |2018-09-16T13:51:54+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Outer walls of Caen castle, Normandy, France The Vikings settle in northern France Around 1000 AD, some of the Vikings who had been raiding France got permission from the French king to settle down and live in France instead. Who were the Vikings? Who was ruling France? These Vikings were supposed to help protect France against other Vikings (as [...]

Republic of Genoa – Medieval Italy

By |2018-05-07T12:11:06+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Medieval drawing of the city of Genoa, Italy (1493) Genoa in the Early Middle Ages Around 900 AD, the Holy Roman Empire began to lose control of Italy, and Genoa was among the Italian cities that got their independence about this time. Genoa became one of the first medieval cities where citizens won some political rights. Genoa's [...]

First Crusade – Middle Ages

By |2018-04-24T08:21:17+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

A Viking ship Throughout the 1000s AD, Viking mercenary soldiers, some coming down the Volga river through Russia, and others sailing around through the Straits of Gibraltar, had been fighting for the Byzantine Empire. Many of these men fought along the Mediterranean coast of West Asia, so they knew that this was a very rich area, and that the Abbasid [...]

Capetians – French History – Middle Ages

By |2018-04-15T16:50:53+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Monogram of Hugh Capet (980s AD) When the Carolingians died out in 987 AD, the lords of France met to choose a new king. They chose a man named Hugh Capet (hyoo ka-PAY). Hugh Capet was picked for being weak, so the lords could do whatever they wanted and the king wouldn't be able to do anything [...]

Vikings – Early Medieval Scandinavia

By |2018-04-24T08:19:15+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

A Viking ship. Viking trade took the Vikings all over the world.  Who were the Vikings? The Vikings were Indo-European people from Scandinavia (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden). Around the 400s AD the Vikings started to make frequent raids by boat into Europe. They even went into the Mediterranean Sea and raided Sicily and southern Italy. The Vikings started to attack the Atlantic coast [...]