In Meroe (modern Sudan), the kings and queens built themselves a big palace by around 900 BC. By 700 BC, people were building solid pyramids in Meroe, but they were much smaller and much later than the ones in Egypt.
Further south in Ethiopia, people were also beginning to build in stone, with a temple-tower dating the same time as the Meroe pyramids. The Ethiopians built their tower in the same style as the Arabs they were trading with.
Wealth began to spread west along the North African coast, too, as the people there started to trade with the Greeks and the Phoenicians. By the 800s BC, the Garamantes in Libya were building hill forts and living in mud-brick houses with stone foundations and floors paved with crushed potsherds. The city of Cyrene got started about 630 BC, and soon had stone houses, paved streets, and Greek-style temples.
Even way on the other side of the West Africa, the Soninke people at Tichit were also starting to build forts out of stone by 500 BC. The Nok people, further south, weren’t building in stone yet (even though they were smelting iron), but around 500 BC they started to move from stick houses to mud-brick houses. By 250 BC, Djenne-djenno (in modern Mali) had a 13 foot high mud-brick wall all the way around it, and almost 30,000 people living inside the walls.
Learn by doing: build a sand castle with a wall around it
More on African Architecture