The Samanids were people who lived in the easternmost part of the Abbasid Empire, in the 800s AD. The Samanids were pretty much the descendants of the Sogdians who lived in that area before them. Like the Sogdians, they were Indo-Europeans. Samanid people mostly spoke Persian (not Arabic) even though they followed the Islamic religion. The Samanid rulers were families descended from the old Zoroastrian aristocracy of the Sassanian Empire, but they had converted to Sunni Islam too.
Samanid rulers mostly supported the Abbasids and copied Abbasid government. They were technically part of the Abbasid Empire, though really they were pretty much independent. One of their capital cities was Samarkand, the old capital of the Sogdians.
Like the Sogdians before them, the Samanids kept on traveling between West Asia and China as traders. Samanid coins were the common currency of the Silk Road in the 800s and 900s AD, so even people as far away as the Vikings in Scandinavia often used Samanid coins.
As educated traders, the Samanids ran a kingdom that supported education and art. They attracted scholars like the scientists al-Razi and Ibn Sina. The Samanids probably brought crucible steel technology from India north to Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, selling steel to the Vikings and to China. They also supported Islamic architecture, building mosques and palaces all over Central Asia.
Bibiography and further reading about the Samanids: