A frieze (pronounced FREEZE) is a long narrow band of sculpture that runs along the architrave of a Greek temple or another building. One of the most famous friezes is the one on the Parthenon in Athens, Greece.
Usually Greek and Roman temples had either a frieze or alternating triglyphs and metopes in this location, but occasionally (as in the Parthenon) a temple might have both a frieze and triglyphs and metopes, to be extra fancy.
Temples in other parts of the world might also have friezes. In India, for example, architects used friezes on the Konarak Sun Temple (1200s AD). These friezes aren’t necessarily above the columns, but may be in different places on the temple.
Ancient Greek Art, by Susie Hodge (1998)- Easy reading.