Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
Welcome to Quatr.us Study Guides!

Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan

By 1200 AD, the Mongol and Turkic people of Central Asia had pretty much finished pushing the Indo-Europeans out of power in Central Asia and West Asia, and had taken over ruling the whole area. About 1180 AD the Mongols elected a new king, Genghis Khan (Khan means king), who was very ambitious and energetic. Genghis Khan soon formed alliances with the Turkic groups near him, so that he ruled both the Mongols and the Turks. He then had to fight against other Mongols who wanted to rule, but by 1206 AD Genghis Khan had gotten control of all of them. He then, like earlier Persian and Chinese rulers, reorganized the Mongol army to be more professional, and issued a new law code, announcing his intentions to rule as the emperor of a civilized state, not the leader of clans and families as before. Then Genghis Khan led his army against other states. Again like Cyrus, Genghis Khan used new battle methods: his soldiers were better organized and trained than those of his enemies, and they used more advanced equipment, including gunpowder. By 1209, Genghis Khan controlled the Uighurs, the Kyrgyz, the Khitan, and all the other small kingdoms of Central Asia.

Genghis Khan died in 1227 AD, and left his empire to his third son, Ogedei. Ogedei made alliances with the Sung Dynasty to get control of northern China from the Jurchen in 1234. He and his sons and grandsons expanded his empire to include Kievan Rus to his west and Persia to his south. By 1241, the Mongols conquered Poland and Hungary.

Ogedei died from drinking too much wine in that same year, 1241 AD, when he was 55 years old. Ogedei's widow, a Christian woman named Toregene, took over ruling the Mongol Empire. Toregene's main assistant was also a woman: Fatima, a Persian Shiite woman. Toregene and Fatima built churches, mosques, and schools all over the Mongol empire. Torogene's generals attacked and looted Sung Dynasty China, and won the battle of Kose Dag over the Seljuks and the Romans in 1243.

Kublai Khan - the Mongols in China

Bibliography and further reading:

Mongols in China
Mongols in India
Central Asian History
More about Central Asia
Quatr.us home


Please help other teachers and students find us: link to this page from your class page.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.
Sign up for more free articles and special offers in Quatr.us' weekly newsletter:
We will never share your e-mail address unless you allow us to do so. View our privacy policy. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.
Check out our new ebook: Short and Simple: Ancient Greek Myths! - just out! Twenty-five easy to read, illustrated stories, from Pandora to Medea, Icarus, and the Trojan Horse (you can read these online as samples). Get it this week for just $14.99, five dollars off the regular price of $19.99.
Cite this page
  • Author: K.E. Carr
  • Title:
  • Site Name: Quatr.us Study Guides
  • Publisher: Quatr.us
  • Date Published:
Did you find what you needed? Ask your teacher to link to this page so other people can use it too! Send it in and win a Quatr.us "Great Page!" award!
Sign up for more free articles and special offers in Quatr.us' weekly newsletter:
We will never share your e-mail address unless you allow us to do so. View our privacy policy. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.
Comment on This Article
Quatr.us is loading comments...
(Comments will appear after moderation, if they are kind and helpful. Feel free to ask questions, and we'll try to answer them.)
Cite this page
  • Carr, K.E. . Quatr.us Study Guides, . Web. 20 August, 2017
ADVERTISEMENT