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Hanging Gardens of Babylon – West Asian science

By | 2017-09-15T22:53:47+00:00 September 15th, 2017|Science, West Asia|

Assurbanipal in the garden (see his enemy's head hanging in the tree?) Nobody knows for sure when or where the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built. But they were already famous as one of the Seven Wonders of the World in the Hellenistic period, about 200 BC. The most likely explanation is that the gardens [...]

Who were the Sumerians? Mesopotamia – West Asian history

By | 2017-12-24T16:26:38+00:00 September 14th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Sumerians - Head of a woman from Warka, about 3000 BC About the same time as the first Pharaohs were coming to power in Egypt, around 3100 BC, a group of people known as the Sumerians were living in Mesopotamia. That's the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in West Asia (modern Iraq). The Sumerians themselves [...]

West Asian environment – Mesopotamia and Iran

By | 2017-09-13T17:06:10+00:00 September 13th, 2017|Environment, West Asia|

Snow in Afghanistan West Asia is a dry place, where it's always hard to get enough water and there are a lot of fights over water. The easternmost part of West Asia is Afghanistan, which is mountainous and cold in the winter. On the other side of Afghanistan is China, and for the most [...]

Norte Chico history – South America

By | 2017-09-09T17:15:42+00:00 September 9th, 2017|History, South America|

Stepped platform at Caral (ca. 2200 BC) People probably first arrived in Peru about 13,000 BC. They were following the Pacific coast south from North America. Like the people who settled Brazil, on the other side of South America, around the same time, they ate a lot of fish and shellfish, squash and potatoes. Sometime around 8000 BC, the Norte Chico people started [...]

Who were the Nazca? South American history

By | 2017-09-09T17:04:12+00:00 September 9th, 2017|History, South America|

Nazca lines - a giant monkey drawn on the desert floor After the Chavin state collapsed about 250 BC, two new states formed in Peru - the Moche in the north and the Nazca in the south. So by about 100 BC, the Nazca were between the Moche and the Mapuche to their south, in what is now Chile, and [...]

Who were the Guarani? South American history

By | 2017-09-09T08:55:29+00:00 September 9th, 2017|History, South America|

Guarani people performing a dance in the 1800s When the first Tupi people expanded their territory from Central America to reach the coast of Brazil about 900 BC, some of them kept on moving south along the Atlantic coast. About a thousand years later, maybe about 1 AD, some of those Tupi people moved inland, abandoning their [...]

Who were the Chavin? South American history

By | 2017-09-09T00:10:12+00:00 September 9th, 2017|South America|

A Chavin carving By around 900 BC, the Norte Chico people of northern Peru developed into the Chavin culture. Like the earlier Norte Chico people, the Chavin people used irrigation to farm potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, and hot chili peppers. They also farmed corn, but they really ate mostly potatoes and quinoa, which grow better high in the Andes mountains. They hunted deer with spears [...]

Brazil’s early history – South America

By | 2017-09-08T22:52:53+00:00 September 8th, 2017|History, South America|

Venus of Santarem (Brazil, ca. 1400-1000 BC) The first people probably arrived on the Atlantic coast of South America about 15,000 BC, following the Atlantic coastline south from Central America. Probably a second wave of people followed them around 11,000 BC. It's also possible that other people reached South America by boat from Australia or Indonesia. [...]

Levers – Simple machines – Physics

By | 2017-08-17T09:06:01+00:00 August 17th, 2017|Physics|

An orangutan child using a stick as a lever A lever is basically just a long stick that you push or pull against a fulcrum - a fixed object - to move something. A lever helps you move something heavy, or make something go fast. The earliest levers developed naturally inside animals' bodies. Whenever [...]

Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee – Sioux history

By | 2017-08-14T09:33:27+00:00 August 14th, 2017|History, Native American|

Red Elk Woman, a member of the Sioux In the 1500s and 1600s AD, Sioux people were still living around the Great Lakes (modern Minnesota). That's where they were in 1667 when they first met French fur traders. But by the 1700s the Sioux (you pronounce it SOO), along with the Cheyenne and the Arapaho, had left [...]