What is the Abbaye aux Dames?
Matilda of Flanders ordered her architects to build this Christian church about 1050 AD in her capital at Caen. (Find out why.) The Abbaye aux Dames is a great example of the Romanesque style of medieval European architecture.
How can we tell it’s Romanesque?
One thing that is typical of Romanesque churches is that the doors have round arches (not pointed ones as in later Gothic churches). Also, there is a lot of plain wall showing – the wall isn’t all windows and decoration as in later churches.
What did people do in this church?
What’s the doorway like?
Here you can see the doorway, which is decorated with a picture of the Trinity and the four beasts that are symbols of the men who wrote the Gospels – Matthew (the man), Mark (the lion), Luke (the ox), and John (the eagle). Can you see each of the animals? Underneath the animals, you can see a Chi-Rho, the symbol of Christ. The three-part doorway of this church may be inspired in part by the three-part doorway of Al-Hakim mosque in Cairo, built a little earlier.
What’s inside the Abbaye aux Dames?
Inside, the main nave of the Abbaye aux Dames (the Women’s Abbey) rises in three storeys – one big round (Romanesque) arch at the bottom, then a blind (false) gallery, and above that a big glass window to let in the light, also rounded in the Romanesque style.
The roof of the Abbaye aux Dames
But the thing that was new about the Abbaye aux Dames was its stone roof. Most earlier churches had wooden roofs, because it was so hard to get a heavy stone roof to stay up. The Abbaye aux Dames was one of the first churches in France to have a stone roof. But it’s not a new invention. Roman basilicas like the Basilica of Maxentius had had stone roofs. Mosques further south in Egypt, Sicily, and Spain were already being built with stone roofs.
What’s new about this roof?