History of Plows - What are plows for? - Farming History
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History of Plows

plowing in ancient egypt
Plowing in ancient Egypt (ca. 1300 BC)

September 2016 - If you are going to plant seeds, like wheat seeds for example, and harvest them, then you are going to have to plow. Plowing is the hardest work of farming. Basically you have to make zillions of holes in the ground to put the seeds in, and you have to loosen up the soil around those seeds so that water will get to them, and so that they will be able to grow. One way of doing this is with just any strong stick, with a point on one end: you stick it in the ground and wiggle it around, and then drop a seed in, and you cover it loosely with dirt, then you do it again, and again, and again, all day long. These are called digging sticks.


Plowing a field with oxen

But it's faster to use a plow. The simplest kind of plow is a digging stick with a handle on it crossways - a scratch plow or ard. You push it along through the dirt, so it makes a groove, and then somebody else goes along behind you dropping the seeds in here and there, and using her foot to cover up the seeds again loosely. You can make the plow go a little better by hardening the wooden point in the fire, or by adding a stone, bronze, or iron point to the stick, to act as a wedge.

drawing of a man plowing with an ox
Han Dynasty plowing

Now, you can make a plow go faster, by adding leather straps or ropes to the front of it, and fastening them to a donkey or an ox, or two donkeys or two oxen, or even four sometimes. Now you push the plow while the animal pulls it. In heavier dirt, more like clay, which is common in river valleys like Mesopotamia, it may be impossible to plow without animals.

man plowing with a wooden board attached to his plow
Plowing with a mold-board in the Middle Ages

About 500 BC, in the time of Confucius, scientists in China invented the moldboard. A moldboard is a wooden board that attaches to a plow, and helps the plow really turn over the dirt instead of just making a groove in it. Roman farmers didn't use moldboards, but moldboards reached Europe about the time of the fall of Rome. Can you see the moldboard here turning over the ground?

In the early Han Dynasty, about 200 BC, Chinese scientists also invented plows made entirely of iron, instead of just tipped with iron. These were much lighter and sharper than wooden plows.

Learn by doing: planting an herb garden
More about planting seeds

Bibliography and further reading about plowing:


Irrigation
Donkeys
Oxen
Horses
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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