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Early African warfare – mercenaries and catapults

By |2018-02-21T11:50:43+00:00October 3rd, 2017|Africa, War|

Early African warfare: Nubian archers in the Middle Kingdom (from the Nubian museum in Aswan, Egypt) The beginnings of war There has been fighting in Africa since the early Stone Age, when one group of people fought and killed another group in order to take over their land along the shore of a [...]

Who were the Scythians? Central Asian history

By |2018-04-24T11:39:59+00:00September 14th, 2017|Central Asia, History|

Scythian history: A Scythian milking a sheep (Tolstaja Mogila kurgan, Ukraine, 400 BC) Scythians lived in Central Asia The Scythians were a large group of loosely connected people who lived in Russia. They also lived further south around the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.  Like the Hittites, the Greeks and the Germans, they were Indo-Europeans. Powerful in the Iron Age We [...]

West Asian games – Mesopotamia and Iran

By |2018-04-25T23:40:39+00:00September 13th, 2017|Games, West Asia|

Earliest known dice (Iran, ca. 2600 BC) See that the six is already opposite the one, as on modern dice? But check out this Harappan die. The people of West Asia really liked gambling games. The earliest dice in the world are from a backgammon set from ancient Persia (modern Iran), from about 3000 BC. Backgammon probably came from even [...]

Who were the Chavin? South American history

By |2018-04-25T20:14:53+00:00September 9th, 2017|South America|

A Chavin carving By around 900 BC, the Norte Chico people of northern Peru developed into the Chavin culture. Like the earlier Norte Chico people, the Chavin people used irrigation to farm potatoes, tomatoes, peanuts, and hot chili peppers. They also farmed corn, but they really ate mostly potatoes and quinoa, which grow better high in the Andes mountains. They hunted deer with spears [...]

Levers – Simple machines – Physics

By |2018-05-31T11:49:33+00:00August 17th, 2017|Physics|

Levers: An orangutan child using a stick as a lever What is a lever? A lever is basically just a long stick that you push or pull against a fulcrum - a fixed object - to move something. A lever helps you move something heavy, or make something go fast. The earliest levers developed [...]

The Crow get horses – American history

By |2018-04-08T11:21:54+00:00August 13th, 2017|History, Native American|

Crow men In the 1600s AD, Crow people were still living in the Dakotas. But they caught smallpox and measles from their neighbors, the Mandan, and many Crow people died. So even though they had not yet met any Europeans, Crow people's lives were still very much changed by European settlers. Crow people met Europeans for the first time in [...]

Cherokee warfare – Native Americans

By |2018-04-07T17:05:46+00:00August 10th, 2017|Native American, War|

Cherokee arrowhead In the Late Woodland and Mississippian period, about 500 AD to 1500 AD, Cherokee men fought a lot of wars with their neighbors, especially against the Creek and the Chocktaw men. When Cherokee men were fighting their enemies, they tied strips of otter skin around their heads, upper arms, and legs below the knees, to show that they [...]

Early Native American science and inventions – History of Science – North America

By |2018-04-24T08:21:21+00:00August 10th, 2017|Native American, Science|

Native American science: Sunflowers growing in a field Domesticating sunflowers Probably the greatest contribution of Native American people to science before 1500 AD was the domestication of several plants, especially sunflowers in eastern North America. These plants were very useful to them. And now they are useful to the people of the whole world. Farmers had to work on this [...]

Woodland period Native American history

By |2018-10-05T06:52:43+00:00August 10th, 2017|History, Native American|

Early Anasazi (Pueblo) pottery from about 550-800 AD Early Woodland The third period of North American history, after the Archaic period, is the Woodland period. What happened in the Archaic period? More Native American articles The Early Woodland period began in the southern and midwestern part of North America about 1200 BC. People like [...]

Chinook history – Native Americans

By |2018-04-19T15:03:14+00:00August 8th, 2017|History, Native American|

(University of Washington - cedar root basket) People have lived in the Pacific Northwest since the Paleo-Indian period, about 11,000 BC. They might even have arrived as early as 20,000 BC! Those first people were fishers. They may have been following the coastline, where the mussels and clams were. They also probably gathered lots of plants, berries, nuts [...]