Carboniferous

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Where are the Ural Mountains?

By |2018-10-16T07:51:52+00:00June 25th, 2017|Central Asia, Geology|

Ural Mountains in Russia Ural Mountains in Central Asia The Ural Mountains run from north to south through Central Asia. They separate Europe from Asia. Like the Appalachian Mountains, the Urals formed about 300 million years ago. That was near the end of the Carboniferous period, when the first reptiles were evolving. It [...]

Where are the Rocky Mountains?

By |2018-04-21T11:56:41+00:00June 25th, 2017|Geology, North America|

Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains stretch all the way from the southern United States north into Canada. They through Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and up into Alberta. What we call the Rocky Mountains is really three different mountain chains, one on top of the other. The oldest mountain chain started more than a [...]

Where are the Appalachian mountains?

By |2018-06-01T23:36:30+00:00June 25th, 2017|Geology, North America|

The Appalachian Mountains When did the Appalachian Mountains form? About 300 million years ago, near the end of the Carboniferous period, when the first reptiles were evolving, the tectonic plates began to form the supercontinent of Pangaea. (More about plate tectonics) How high were the Appalachians when they were new? When the Euramerica [...]

What is carbon dioxide? Molecules and Chemistry

By |2017-06-01T13:27:02+00:00June 1st, 2017|Chemistry|

Carbon dioxide is one of the simplest and commonest molecules in the universe. It has only three Atoms - one carbon and two oxygen atoms. It's easy for the carbon atoms to join up with oxygen atoms because the outer shell (the valance shell) of the carbon atom has only four electrons in it, leaving room [...]

History of Coal – Central Asian science

By |2018-09-27T06:43:01+00:00June 1st, 2017|Central Asia, Science|

History of coal: These are lumps of coal What is coal made of? Most of the coal on Earth formed during the Carboniferous Period about 350 million years ago, when giant ferns growing in wetlands were flooded and buried under a blanket of mud before they could rot. What happened in the Carboniferous [...]

What are conifers? Pine trees, gymnosperms

By |2018-04-21T11:56:36+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Spruce tree - a type of gymnosperm and conifer Near the end of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, the land on Earth got a lot drier than it had been before. It was drier because plate tectonics was bringing all of the land together into one big continent, Pangaea. Plants that [...]

What are ferns? Plant biology and evolution

By |2018-04-16T10:34:27+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Ferns growing in a forest The first ferns - the first plants that had leaves - evolved from plants that were more like moss. Ferns evolved about 360 million years ago, during the Carboniferous era. Like moss, most ferns grow in places where there is plenty of water: usually near the banks of streams. But [...]

What are cycads? Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-16T10:33:47+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Cycad trees. They look like palm trees but they are very different! At the end of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, the only kinds of plants on Earth were mosses and ferns. Some of the ferns were giant ferns as big as trees are now. Then in the late Carboniferous [...]

What are mollusks? What’s a cephalopod? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-16T08:32:28+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Evolution of mollusks: Slugs are a kind of mollusk. When did the first mollusks appear? Mollusks are animals like mussels, clams, snails and slugs. Their name means "soft", because mollusks don't have any skeletons. The first mollusks probably evolved from early segmented worms around 500 million years ago.  That was in the Cambrian period. At [...]