Where are the Alps? Mountains in Europe

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a long chain of snowy mountains: the Alps

The Alps

The Alps are a long row of mountains dividing southern Europe from northern Europe.  France and Germany are on one side of the Alps, and Italy is on the other side. The Alps formed about 34 to 23 million years ago, in the Tertiary era. The African tectonic plate bumped into the European tectonic plate. As the two plates pushed on each other, they pushed a bunch of rocks up, just like when you push two piles of sand toward each other on the beach. There must have been lots of volcanoes erupting all over the place and huge earthquakes as this happened. But it didn’t happen all at once. The plates only move less than nine centimeters a year, so the mountains would have taken millions of years to form.

Alps: a village with a tall mountain peak and snow behind it

Up in the Alps in Switzerland

Today the Alps are older mountains, and there are no longer any active volcanoes in the Alps, but they are still growing between a millimeter and a centimeter each year!

During the Little Ice Age of the Late Middle Ages, glaciers moved down from the tops of the Alps like slow rivers of ice. The ice covered many higher villages completely, so the people who lived there had to move. More recently, with global warming, those glaciers have melted again. Today, archaeologists are finding long-covered traces of those medieval villages.

Learn by Doing – Graph the height of mountain chains
More about climate change
More about the Himalayas

Bibliography and further reading about the Alps:

More about Europe’s environment
And more about the Tertiary period
More about Geology
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By |2018-04-21T11:56:39+00:00June 25th, 2017|Geology, Northern Europe|0 Comments
Cite this page: Carr, K.E. Where are the Alps? Mountains in Europe. Quatr.us Study Guides, June 25, 2017. Web. November 16, 2018.

About the Author:

Dr. Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Facebook, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.

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