World War II

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What is rubber? History of rubber

By | 2018-04-08T11:21:56+00:00 September 8th, 2017|Science, South America|

A big rubber tree in Mexico Olmec people, living in southern Mexico, invented rubber about 1600 BC. It was just as they were beginning to build their empire. Rubber starts out as the sap of a Central American tree - the rubber tree. You tap the tree or cut it down for the sap. Then you mix the sap [...]

What is typhus? History of diseases

By | 2017-09-07T10:30:32+00:00 September 7th, 2017|Science|

A woman with typhus Nobody seems to have caught typhus before about 1450 AD, so the disease probably didn't exist until then. Typhus is an infection caused by tiny germs (bacteria) that live inside animal cells, and most people caught the germs from lice, when the lice bit them (the lice die of typhus too). [...]

History of Valentine’s Day – American holidays

By | 2018-04-24T10:38:17+00:00 August 14th, 2017|North America, Religion|

A Valentine from Charles, duke of Orleans, to his wife in 1415 AD The Roman Lupercalia The earliest holiday that might conceivably have something to do with Valentine's Day is the Roman Lupercalia. And the fashion for people singing Valentines verses to each other may have started earlier in the Middle Ages. Chaucer and [...]

Quakers – Society of Friends – Religion

By | 2017-08-14T23:37:27+00:00 August 14th, 2017|Modern Europe, North America, Religion|

A Quaker wedding (1800s in England) In 1648 AD, some people in England felt unhappy with the way Puritan Christians were praying to God. So they started to do things their own way. One early Quaker was a man named George Fox. But generally the Quakers (who call themselves the Friends) had no leaders, priests, or ministers. [...]

Civil Rights movement – American history

By | 2018-04-24T10:40:21+00:00 August 14th, 2017|History, North America|

World War II Shipyard During World War I, many white men were away being soldiers. Because of the war, no new people came from Europe to take their places. So some black people found work in factories. That paid much better than any work they had had before. In World War II, in [...]

Comanche history – Native Americans

By | 2018-04-24T10:40:21+00:00 August 12th, 2017|History, Native American|

Comanche women (1800s) From Shoshone to Comanche Pueblo people captured Spanish horses in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 AD, and they sold some of those horses to the Shoshone, in what is now Wyoming. The Shoshone who had horses split off from the other Shoshone. They called themselves the Nermernuh, but their Ute neighbors called them the Comanche. [...]

European Warfare – Military history

By | 2018-04-20T08:25:05+00:00 August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, War|

British cannon from the Hundred Years' War (now at Mont St. Michel) Not long before 1500 AD, everything medieval soldiers did in wars suddenly changed. First, Europeans learned how to make and use gunpowder from Central Asian scientists, and they put gunpowder into metal cannons. Once you had cannons, you could blow holes in thick castle walls and in soldiers' armor, and [...]

Jean-Paul Sartre – European philosophy

By | 2018-04-08T11:14:29+00:00 August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Jean-Paul Sartre - a French philosopher After World War I, many people in Europe felt that the old world had ended and a new world was beginning. Jean-Paul Sartre grew up at the beginning of that new world. Sartre's father died of a fever when Sartre was two years old, and his mother [...]

World War II – history of Europe

By | 2017-08-06T08:29:19+00:00 August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Unemployed people in Germany (1930s) The Depression left everyone in Europe feeling angry and upset, because so many people were poor. People were especially upset in Germany, where they also were angry about losing World War I. Many German people looked for someone to blame for their problems. Some Germans blamed Jews, because they were outsiders, and [...]

Anarchists, Franco and modern Spain

By | 2018-04-08T21:33:42+00:00 August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Anarchist militia (Barcelona, 1936) Just as with the Napoleonic Wars, World War I left Spain with the difficult problem of having close relationships with countries on both sides of the war: King Alfonso III was descended from French kings, but Spain had a long tradition of being allied with Austria/Germany too. So Alfonso chose to stay [...]