Pangaea

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What is plate tectonics? Earthquakes and volcanoes

By |2018-04-18T09:54:07+00:00September 21st, 2017|Geology|

The world as seen from space (flattened out) When you look at a map of the world, it seems as though it was always like that - North America on top of South America, Europe north of Africa, Australia off at the bottom right. But really all of the dry land on Earth moves around like floating shapes about 60 miles [...]

Where are the Ural Mountains?

By |2018-10-16T07:51:52+00:00June 25th, 2017|Central Asia, Geology|

Ural Mountains in Russia Ural Mountains in Central Asia The Ural Mountains run from north to south through Central Asia. They separate Europe from Asia. Like the Appalachian Mountains, the Urals formed about 300 million years ago. That was near the end of the Carboniferous period, when the first reptiles were evolving. It [...]

Triassic period – pine trees and pterodactyls

By |2018-04-21T11:56:46+00:00June 25th, 2017|Biology, Geology|

A turtle in the desert During the Triassic period (about 248 to 199 million years ago), most of Earth's land continued to stick together in one big supercontinent, Pangaea. Because the middle of Pangaea was so far from the oceans, it was very dry there, like a desert. The whole world was generally [...]

Permian period – Reptiles and pine trees

By |2018-04-21T11:56:38+00:00June 24th, 2017|Biology, Geology|

Crocodiles About 290 million years ago, the Carboniferous period ended and the Permian period began. Almost all of the land on Earth grouped together in one big supercontinent we call Pangaea, which reached all the way from the North Pole to the South Pole. With all the land grouped together, the climate got [...]

Jurassic Period – dinosaurs and ferns

By |2018-04-21T11:56:46+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology, When|

A dinosaur skeleton When the Jurassic period began, about 199 million years ago, a lot of animals had just become extinct in the catastrophe that ended the Triassic period. This left room for the dinosaurs to have a lot of baby dinosaurs. Soon all different kinds of dinosaurs were living all over the [...]

What are conifers? Pine trees, gymnosperms

By |2018-04-21T11:56:36+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Spruce tree - a type of gymnosperm and conifer Near the end of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, the land on Earth got a lot drier than it had been before. It was drier because plate tectonics was bringing all of the land together into one big continent, Pangaea. Plants that [...]

What are turtles? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-21T11:56:44+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Evolution of turtles: Seychelles tortoise (Jardin des Plantes, Paris) Evolution of turtles The first turtles began to evolve from earlier reptiles about 225 million years ago, during the Triassic period. By about 210 million years ago, they looked pretty much like modern turtles. Turtles are one of the oldest kinds of reptiles that [...]

What are reptiles? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-21T11:56:35+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Boa Constrictor snake Some kinds of amphibians evolved into reptiles about 300 million years ago. At this time, plate tectonics had moved more and more of the land on Earth into one big continent called Pangaea. All the land being together changed the weather so that it was drier and colder than before. That [...]

What are dinosaurs? Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:44+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Tyrannosaurus Rex dinosaur (American Museum of Natural History) The first dinosaurs evolved out of earlier types of chordate reptiles about 230 million years ago, on the big land mass called Pangaea. At that time, all of the land on earth was stuck together in one big continent. Like other reptiles, dinosaurs were generally cold-blooded [...]

What are Mammals – Biology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:43+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Rat from New Zealand About 200 million years ago, when all the land on Earth was stuck together in one big continent called Pangaea, some animals related to reptiles living on Pangaea gradually evolved into a new group called mammals (MAMM-elz). The mammals were different from the earlier reptiles in several ways. First, [...]