By the late 1600s, though, when William and Mary were ruling England, the rich lords who were in Parliament wanted more rights than just the ones in the Magna Carta. They wanted to make sure that the kings and queens of England wouldn’t get to have absolute power like Louis XIV in France. In 1689 the rich lords added these new rules:
- The King or Queen can’t make new laws or invent new courts or judge cases on their own – Parliament has to agree too.
- The King or Queen can’t decide on new taxes unless Parliament agrees.
- And the King or Queen can’t keep an army unless there’s a war or Parliament agrees (so they can’t use the army to threaten Parliament).
- The King or Queen can’t stop people from having guns or swords to defend themselves unless there’s a law passed by Parliament.
- The King or Queen can’t interfere in the elections to choose the members of Parliament.
- When Parliament is debating an issue, members have complete freedom of speech.
- No punishments can be announced or carried out until someone is actually convicted of a crime.
- No excessive bail or “cruel and unusual” punishments are allowed.
- Nobody who is a Catholic can be King or Queen of England.
Because of this Bill of Rights, Parliament was really ruling England. The Kings and Queens had to do pretty much what Parliament wanted. But this Bill of Rights only took power from the King or Queen and gave it to rich lords. Ordinary people didn’t get any power. Ordinary people didn’t get to be in Parliament. They didn’t get to vote for Parliament either.
Learn by doing: write a bill of rights for your family, classroom, or workplace
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