Who is Ahura Mazda?
An Indo-European god
These people were Indo-Europeans themselves, and Ahura Mazda (ah-HOO-rah-MAHZ-dah) was probably an Indo-European god originally.
That is, he probably got started under the big open skies of Central Asia, with the Yamnaya. When the Yamnaya invaded Iran, they brought their sky god with them.
A god of justice and order
Is Ahura Mazda Mithra and Varuna’s father? Or should we think of all three gods as brothers? They are all interested in the same thing – promoting law and order over chaos.
The Indo-Europeans reached Greece and Germany, as well as Iran and India. All of these related gods are male. That’s probably because ancient Indo-Europeans and West Asians had the sexist idea that reason and order were male, while chaos and confusion were female.
What did Ahura Mazda look like?
Unlike most Indian and West Asian gods of this time, Ahura Mazda didn’t necessarily look like a person. Artists carved him with the head and shoulders of a person. But then the artists gave him wings and a tail like a bird or a spirit. (Compare this to medieval paintings of the Holy Spirit.)
When did people worship Ahura Mazda?
Sometime around 1000 BC, though, a priest named Zoroaster in eastern Iran began to tell people that he had had a special message from God. Zoroaster heard God tell him that Ahura Mazda was really important. People began to worship Ahura Mazda more than they had before.
After a while, Ahura Mazda became the one supreme god over all the other gods. And most of the other gods gradually became less powerful. People started to think of these other gods as demons. In this way, Zoroastrianism was somewhat monotheistic.
How long did people worship Ahura Mazda?
People kept on praying to Ahura Mazda and sacrificing to him from about 1500 BC to the 600s AD. After about 400 AD, though, it was mostly the Sassanian kings of Iran who worshipped Ahura Mazda. Ordinary Iranian people had mostly switched over to Buddhism or Christianity.
Zoroastrianism, by Paula Hartz (updated 2004). Easy reading.
The Usborne Book of World Religions, by Susan Meredith (1996). Easy reading.
An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion: Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions, by William Malandra (1983). A nice clear explanation of ancient Zoroastrianism, by a specialist, for adults.