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Sofia Baffo and the Ottoman Empire – 1600s AD

By |2018-09-16T12:38:21+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo Sofia Baffo - a woman in charge Sofia Baffo took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1583 AD. She ruled through her husband Murad III after her aunt and mother-in-law Nurbanu died. In 1593, Sofia entered into a war with Austria. What was going on before Sofia Baffo? After Murad died in 1595, Sofia ruled [...]

Central and South American history – colonization

By |2018-04-29T10:45:08+00:00September 8th, 2017|Central America, History, South America|

South American history: Aztec doctor treating people with smallpox (1500s AD, Codex Mendoza) The Inca, Brazil, and Chile In 1500 AD, the Inca Empire dominated the east coast of South America. Further north, the Aztec empire under Montezuma II controlled Mexico and what is now Guatemala. In the center of South America was the Amazon rain forest. Many people lived [...]

History of Brazil – Brazil and colonization

By |2018-08-19T05:59:20+00:00September 8th, 2017|History, South America, Where|

History of Brazil: The Tapuia people, ca. 1650 (by Albert Eckhout) Tupi war with Tapuia In the late 1400s AD, the Tupi people had just won a big war with the Tapuia people. They had gotten control of the Atlantic coast of South America (modern Brazil). They forced most of the Tapuia people inland. So the [...]

Silver and silver mining – the history

By |2017-10-17T13:26:22+00:00September 7th, 2017|Economy, West Asia|

Silver mining slaves at Laurion, near Athens People first mined silver in the Bronze Age. Like gold, silver is a great way to help people trade. Even before people started to make coins, little bits of silver - bracelets, earrings, and necklaces - were a great way to carry around something valuable but not [...]

How did people eat in ancient Rome? Roman silverware and dishes

By |2018-04-25T09:06:28+00:00August 31st, 2017|Food, Romans, Science|

Spoons made out of bronze and animal bone from ancient Rome Most people in ancient Rome ate most of their food with spoons. A lot of it was soups and porridge. The spoons in this picture are made of bronze and bone. But a lot of Roman spoons were made of wood. Fancy rich people [...]

Christmas Trees – American holidays

By |2017-08-14T14:26:19+00:00August 14th, 2017|North America, Northern Europe, Religion|

Christmas Tree in Germany (late 1700s, by Joseph Keller) Because Christmas is related to old celebrations of the winter solstice, evergreen trees have always been popular decorations in northern countries at Christmastime. They're green when everything else is dead and white. In the time of the Roman Empire, people sometimes hung small bits of metal from trees at this [...]

Renaissance Science in Europe

By |2017-08-07T21:36:38+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Science|

Copernicus, a Renaissance astronomer Starting in the 1200s AD, as Europe got richer, great universities got started there. In the later Middle Ages, West Asia and India suffered from the Mongol invasions. West Asian people were too poor to send their children to the old university at Baghdad. In the 1300s, the Black Death killed so many people in Egypt that the old university at Cairo also didn't have [...]

War of the Spanish Succession

By |2018-04-08T11:14:24+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip V of Spain Austria and France fight over Spain The War of the Spanish Succession was a war between Austria and France. They were fighting over which of them would rule Spain and all of Spain's colonies in North and South America. When Charles II of Spain died in 1700 AD, he left no sons. People disagreed [...]

Renaissance Europe – Charles V

By |2018-09-07T09:51:54+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Charles Quint (by Titian, 1548) The Ottomans terrify Europe The biggest worry that people had in the early 1500s AD in Europe was that the Ottoman Empire was going to conquer Europe. Would Europe be ruled by Islamic rulers? Who were the Ottomans though? And in fact the Ottomans, under their sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, did conquer the eastern [...]

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2018-09-17T08:09:16+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, Philip II ruled Spain in the mid-1500s AD. Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and Central America, Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Texas. Philip also ruled the Netherlands and Flanders (now part of Belgium), north of France. As [...]