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Mexico and colonization – Central American history

By |2018-04-08T21:33:39+00:00September 8th, 2017|Central America, History|

Tenochtitlan under attack (painted in the 1600s) In 1500 AD, the Aztec  controlled most of what is now Mexico. People also called them the Mexica. In 1519, the Aztec ruler, Moctezuma the Younger, was surprised to hear that white men on ships had shown up out of nowhere. Moctezuma invited the strangers to his capital city, [...]

Brazil and colonization – South American history

By |2018-04-19T15:03:06+00:00September 8th, 2017|History, South America, Where|

Tapuia people, ca. 1650 (by Albert Eckhout) In the late 1400s AD, the Tupi people had just won a big war with the Tapuia people. They had gotten control of the Atlantic coast of South America (modern Brazil). They forced most of the Tapuia people inland. So the Tupi were living near the beaches, fishing. Different Tupi [...]

What is typhus? History of diseases

By |2017-09-07T10:30:32+00:00September 7th, 2017|Science|

A woman with typhus Nobody seems to have caught typhus before about 1450 AD, so the disease probably didn't exist until then. Typhus is an infection caused by tiny germs (bacteria) that live inside animal cells, and most people caught the germs from lice, when the lice bit them (the lice die of typhus too). [...]

Louisiana Purchase – American history

By |2018-05-04T11:11:14+00:00August 13th, 2017|History, Native American, North America|

Louisiana Purchase: What Europeans were claiming Before the Louisiana purchase In 1800 AD, Native Americans still controlled most of North America. But Spain, France, Britain and the United States were busy fighting over who got to conquer it. Native Americans and Spain Spain was trying to conquer the land along the West Coast and the Southwest, and Florida. But most of that [...]

European Warfare – Military history

By |2018-04-20T08:25:05+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, War|

British cannon from the Hundred Years' War (now at Mont St. Michel) Not long before 1500 AD, everything medieval soldiers did in wars suddenly changed. First, Europeans learned how to make and use gunpowder from Central Asian scientists, and they put gunpowder into metal cannons. Once you had cannons, you could blow holes in thick castle walls and in soldiers' armor, and [...]

European science in the 1800s

By |2018-04-16T10:32:30+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Science|

European boys at school in the 1800s In the first half of the 1800s AD, countries in northern Europe like France and Britain forced India, Ghana, Nigeria, Canada, and other countries to give them food. That meant that many people in northern Europe could stop farming and get an education. Families sent more boys to school than girls, so most of the educated people were [...]

Georg Hegel – European Philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:27+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Georg Hegel, a European philosopher Georg Hegel, twenty years younger than Wollstonecraft, wasn't interested in political or economic equality for either men or women. As a late Enlightenment philosopher, Hegel worked with the problem Descartes and Hobbes had outlined of the relationship between mind, soul, and body. Descartes and Kant pretty much believed in the existence of the soul. Hobbes [...]

Napoleon – European History

By |2017-08-05T23:25:31+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Napoleon in 1806 Right after the French Revolution, a lot of people in France were wondering, what sort of government did they really want? People wanted democracy, but on the other hand they were tired of the Revolution killing so many people and not getting much done. A young general, Napoleon, took advantage of the [...]

Hanoverian England – Walpole and Pitt

By |2018-05-17T12:47:43+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Hanoverian England: King George I of England Why did the Hanoverians come from Germany to rule England? Because Queen Anne had no children, and no Catholic could be king or queen, when Anne died in 1717 AD there was nobody in England to inherit the throne. (More about Queen Anne) So Anne's cousin George - James I's great-grandson [...]

French Revolution – History of France

By |2017-08-05T15:03:13+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

French women revolutionaries march on the king's palace at Versailles All through the 1700s, Enlightenment philosophers in France had been figuring out new ways of thinking about the world. Little by little they rejected religion and inherited power. They invented the idea that people should use logic and reason to make choices, that people - both [...]