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Spain loses her colonies – 1800s

By |2018-04-28T17:48:29+00:00August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Maria Christina Spain was among the first Western countries to get colonies in the 1500s, and it was among the first to lose its colonies in the 1800s. In 1810, Chile declared independence. Then in 1821, Mexico and Peru became independent too. At the same time, Spain began to rock back and forth between democracy and [...]

Christian nuns – Medieval Europe

By |2018-04-24T09:15:23+00:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval, Religion|

Egyptian caves where early monks and nuns lived The first Christian nuns, like the first Christian monks, lived in Africa - they lived alone in the desert in Egypt in the 300s and 400s AD, where they could be alone to pray all day. Like the men, they probably got the idea from earlier Buddhist nuns in India (many traders went back and forth [...]

Christian monks – Medieval Europe – What is a monk?

By |2018-11-13T13:57:07+00:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval, Religion|

Christian monks: A monk shaving another  monk What is a monk? Sometimes when a little boy seemed especially smart, his parents would take him to a monastery and leave him there to be taken care of by the monks and educated, and when he grew up he would become a monk. One example [...]

King Henry II of England – Medieval history

By |2018-05-22T23:15:30+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Henry II of England Queen Matilda of England When William the Conqueror died in 1087 AD, he left the throne of England to his sons William II and then Henry, and Henry left it to his daughter Matilda, the widow of Henry V of Germany. Delilah treacherously cuts off Samson's hair while he sleeps. Carved into [...]

Theodora and Bardas – Byzantine History

By |2018-04-21T13:19:57+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Empress Theodora on a gold coin, with her son and daughter on the other side. With Theophilus dead, in 842 AD the Empire again had a woman in charge. The empress Theodora, at 27, became regent for her two-year-old son, Michael. Theodora was an iconodule. She allowed artists to make icons again. But she was smarter than Irene, and [...]

Buddhist nuns in ancient India and China

By |2017-08-12T16:37:36+00:00July 21st, 2017|India, Religion|

Modern Buddhist nuns in northern India The earliest Buddhists in India were both men and women, and there were Buddhist nuns as early as Buddhist monks. Some early Buddhist monastic communities had both men and women. This is normal for movements that are just getting started and have a lot of radical members who believe in equality. [...]

Buddhist monks in India and China

By |2018-10-05T06:25:00+00:00July 21st, 2017|India, Religion|

Takht-i Bahi, a Buddhist monastery in eastern Pakistan (about 50 AD) where Buddhist monks could study Holy men and women While Gautama Buddha was still alive, about 500 BC, he had many followers. Some of these men and women in India wanted to be extra good Buddhists. So they decided to try to live as purely as they [...]

Chang’an – T’ang Dynasty Chinese Architecture

By |2018-04-18T09:53:23+00:00June 4th, 2017|Architecture, China|

The walls of Chang'an under the T'ang Dynasty (ca. 700 AD) People have been living in the city of Chang'an in China since the Stone Age. But Chang'an reached its biggest size - about a million people - under the T'ang Dynasty, when the powerful T'ang emperors made Chang'an their new capital city. [...]

Three Kingdoms Architecture – China

By |2018-04-18T09:54:15+00:00June 4th, 2017|Architecture, China|

Three Kingdoms architecture: Mogao Caves (366 AD and later) First Buddhist temples in China Beginning in 366 AD, people in China built the earliest Buddhist temples in China. These first Buddhist temples at Mogao were carved into caves in the side of cliffs, like the earlier Buddhist temples at Ajanta in India. Buddhist monks and [...]