Galen

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15 09, 2017

West Asian science – Mesopotamia and Iran

By |2019-09-04T05:49:39-07:00September 15th, 2017|West Asia|0 Comments

The constellation Orion What did Mesopotamians invent? From the Stone Age through the Islamic empires, great scientific discoveries have streamed out of West Asia. West Asia is one of the places where farming got started, and maybe the sailboat. Farming  Early ships and sailing Numbers and writing The pottery wheel All our West Asia articles The Sumerians developed the [...]

7 09, 2017

What is tuberculosis? History of diseases

By |2019-04-03T13:26:04-07:00September 7th, 2017|Science, West Asia|0 Comments

A child with tuberculosis What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis is a lung disease caused by germs. Today we can usually cure it with antibiotics. But in antiquity there was no cure. Many people died of tuberculosis. What are germs? What do your lungs do? More about diseases When did tuberculosis get going? One kind of tuberculosis seems [...]

7 09, 2017

What is opium? World history of medicine and drugs

By |2017-09-07T09:33:48-07:00September 7th, 2017|Central Asia, Science|1 Comment

Opium poppy flower Opium comes from a kind of poppy flower. It evolved around 100 million years ago in West Asia and Central Asia. People probably realized as soon as they got to West Asia, about 60,000 years ago, that you could use opium as a medicine. By 6000 BC, in the Stone Age, West Asian farmers were already growing opium in their [...]

5 09, 2017

History of Electricity – Science of shocks

By |2019-05-26T06:12:40-07:00September 5th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

History of electricity: A bolt of lightning in the sky Why did it take so long to control electricity? Like other inventions, electricity took thousands of years to develop. For centuries. scientists all over the world investigated first one idea and then another. At first, of course, they didn't even know what they [...]

4 09, 2017

Medicine and doctors in the Roman Empire

By |2019-07-15T22:20:43-07:00September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|1 Comment

Roman medicine: Galen used surgical instruments like these What do we mean by Roman medicine? Roman medicine is really West Asian and African medicine. That's because most of the great doctors of the Roman Empire lived in West Asia (in Turkey and Syria), or in Africa (in Egypt), not in Europe. Egyptian doctors [...]

4 09, 2017

Roman science – What did ancient Romans invent?

By |2019-05-23T07:11:06-07:00September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|4 Comments

Roman mold-blown glass (100s AD) West Asian/African science under Roman rule What we call Roman science is a mixture of two different things. The first is the discoveries and inventions made by scientists working in parts of West Asia and Africa that the Romans had conquered. Earlier West Asian science Science in ancient [...]

7 08, 2017

Renaissance Science in Europe

By |2017-08-07T21:36:38-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Science|0 Comments

Copernicus, a Renaissance astronomer Starting in the 1200s AD, as Europe got richer, great universities got started there. In the later Middle Ages, West Asia and India suffered from the Mongol invasions. West Asian people were too poor to send their children to the old university at Baghdad. In the 1300s, the Black Death killed so many people in Egypt that the old university at Cairo also didn't have [...]

27 07, 2017

Medieval Islamic medicine

By |2019-08-22T09:31:55-07:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|0 Comments

Islamic medicine: From an Ottoman manuscript, two doctors telling the pharmacist how to make different medicines Writing medical encyclopedias Doctors made big scientific advances in medicine during the Islamic empire. The Islamic Empire was rich enough from Silk Road trade and trading on the Indian Ocean to pay a lot of doctors and scientists, [...]

27 07, 2017

Ibn Sina – Islamic medicine

By |2019-10-04T07:58:44-07:00July 27th, 2017|Islam|9 Comments

Where ibn Sina came from: Uzbekistan Ibn Sina and the Samanids in Uzbekistan Ibn Sina (known to Europeans as Avicenna) was a scientist. He was born about 980 AD in the north-eastern part of the Abbasid Empire. That was in the kingdom of the Samanids. (It's modern Uzbekistan.) Who were the Samanids? Medieval Islamic science All our medieval Islam [...]

27 07, 2017

Ibn al-Haytham – Medieval Islamic science

By |2019-09-15T21:13:57-07:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|0 Comments

Diagram of an eye, by Ibn al-Haytham (ca. 1000 AD) Who was ibn al-Haytham? Ibn al-Haytham was born about 965 AD in Basra, near the Persian Gulf (modern Iraq), and when he grew up he went to Cairo, in Egypt, to get an education. Cairo was at that time a rich university center under Fatimid rule. He [...]