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Maya gods and rituals – Central American religion

By |2017-09-10T13:09:15+00:00September 10th, 2017|Central America, Religion|

Maya pyramid at Tonina (ca. 700 AD) Maya people believed that the world was created by One Deer. One Deer created the mother and father of the gods (like Brahma and Gayatri or Gaia and Kronos). Then the mother and father created many other gods. They created the gods of the crops like the Corn God, the god [...]

What is Hinduism? A religion of India

By |2017-10-14T16:35:20+00:00July 21st, 2017|India, Religion, What|

Arjuna fighting Karna, with Krishna as his charioteer (Duttapara Temple, ca. 1500s AD) The word Hindu comes from the river Indus, and it just means the people who live near the Indus river (actually in modern Pakistan). The Harappa people who lived near that river about 2500 BC carved images of several different gods on their clay seals. We can't read Harappan writing, [...]

Devonian Period – Gondwana, ferns, lungfish

By |2018-04-21T11:56:37+00:00June 24th, 2017|Biology, Geology|

Coelocanth Four hundred and sixteen million years ago, when the Silurian period ended and the Devonian period began, most of the land on Earth was clumped together into a supercontinent called Gondwana. At this time the only creatures that lived on land were small plants like moss and lichens, mushrooms, and other fungi, [...]

What happened in the Cretaceous Period?

By |2018-04-21T11:56:37+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology|

Volcano erupting During the Cretaceous period, beginning about 145 million years ago, the continents continued to drift away from each other, so that the mammals, birds, and dinosaurs on different continents evolved separately and got more and more different from each other. As the continents separated, the climate got cooler and rainier, and [...]

Where do sunflowers come from? North America

By |2018-06-01T10:58:55+00:00June 23rd, 2017|Food, Native American|

Wild sunflowers or Black-Eyed Susan flowers Where do sunflowers grow wild? Sunflowers grew wild all over North America. From the Paleo-Indian time on, many different groups of people picked sunflowers and ate the little seeds. Where do sunflower seeds come from? Sunflower seeds grow in the middle of the flower, packed tightly together. They are [...]

Looking at flowers – Angiosperms project – Biology

By |2018-04-16T10:36:08+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Daffodil with petals and pistil in the middle. Take a long walk around your neighborhood and the park in the late spring and look at all the flowers you see. Can you find ten different kinds of flowers? What does each of these flowers do to attract bees? Is it their color? Their [...]

Flowering plants – Evolution and Biology

By |2017-05-30T09:44:04+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Lavender flowers smell wonderful! For millions of years, the Earth was covered with ferns and pine trees and moss and mushrooms, without any flowers, grass, or fruit. But about 120 million years ago, in the Cretaceous period, some of these pine trees developed a new way to scatter their seeds that turned out to [...]

Seeds – Plant reproduction – Biology

By |2018-04-13T17:51:52+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Evolution of seeds: Dandelion seeds What is a seed? A seed is the egg cell of a plant, with a hard wrapper around it so it can survive on its own. The earliest plants with seeds evolved from plants with spores during the late Devonian period, about 360 million years ago. The seeds [...]

Plant reproduction – Biology – Science

By |2018-04-13T17:52:39+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Cell division The very earliest photosynthesizing plants on Earth, about 3 billion years ago, had only one cell, and they reproduced the way most one-celled creatures do, by mitosis: splitting themselves in half. By about two billion years ago, some of these cells began to split themselves in a more sophisticated way, called [...]

Haploid and diploid cells – Plant reproduction

By |2018-04-13T17:05:53+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Human sperm cells with flagella (under a microscope) - They're haploid cells. When a cell divides by meiosis, it ends up with only half the amount of DNA it had before. That is a haploid cell. When two haploid cells join together to make one new cell with the regular amount of DNA, that's [...]