The moon in Greek astronomy

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the moon: a circle of tan with stripes on a black background

A photograph of the moon from space

Early Greeks thought of the moon as the goddess Artemis. Where the Egyptians had thought of the moon as a man and the sun as a woman, the Greeks reversed that and thought of the moon as a woman.

By the Archaic period, however, educated Greek men and women knew from observing solar eclipses and ships sailing to the horizon that the moon was a round ball. The astronomer Thales in the 600s BC also knew that the moon didn’t make its own light, but shone by reflecting light from the sun. In the 400s BC, Greek scientists like Anaxagoras knew why eclipses happened.

The Greek goddess Artemis - the moon goddess

The Greek goddess Artemis – the moon goddess

By the Hellenistic period, in the 200s BCAristarchus figured out that the moon went around the earth, and (based on the work of the Libyan Eratosthenes) about how big the moon was.

Learn by doing: observe the moon
More about Artemis, the Greek moon goddess
More about the moon

Bibliography and further reading about Greek astronomy and the moon:

 

Greek and Roman Science, by Don Nardo (1998). Nardo has written a lot of good books about the ancient world for kids; this one is no exception.

Greek Astronomy, by Thomas Heath (1932). A collection of what ancient Greek writers had to say about astronomy, in their own words, with a long introduction. For adults.

The History & Practice of Ancient Astronomy, by James Evans (1998). Includes both the history, and directions to actually re-do the experiments that ancient Greek astronomers used to figure out their conclusions. For adults.

Greek Science After Aristotle, by G. E. R. Lloyd (1975).

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By | 2017-07-18T06:19:24+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Greeks, History, Science|0 Comments
Cite this page: Carr, K.E. The moon in Greek astronomy. Quatr.us Study Guides, July 18, 2017. Web. December 11, 2017.

About the Author:

Karen Carr

Karen Carr is Associate Professor Emerita, Department of History, Portland State University. She holds a doctorate in Classical Art and Archaeology from the University of Michigan. Follow her on Instagram, Pinterest, or Twitter, or buy her book, Vandals to Visigoths.

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