Roman Sewage - Ancient Rome answers questions
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Roman Sewage

A Roman latrine

In larger Roman towns, people often got sick or died from drinking water that had been contaminated with sewage. Sewage is human waste - poop or pee. When people drink water with poop in it, they can get other people's germs and get sick with dysentery or die. To fix this problem, many Roman towns built aqueducts to bring in fresh water from the hills outside of the towns. They also built public latrines and systems of sewage pipes to carry sewage out of the streets and dump it into the river. This was a big improvement on Greek sewage arrangements, where people just poured their waste into the street however they wanted.

Public latrine at Ostia (Thanks to Lynn Lichtenbaum)

There were also big public toilets that had room for lots of people at the same time (this one is from Ostia). Unlike latrines in China, in Rome people sat down to go to the bathroom.

Street drain in a Roman street

These sewers just dumped raw sewage into the river, which was better than leaving it lying around in the streets, but still did spread germs sometimes. The Romans didn't have any way of treating sewage to kill the germs, as we do today, and they didn't understand the need to do that.

Roman clay drainpipe

Some of these sewers are still being used today.

In smaller towns, though - most of the towns in the Roman Empire - there weren't any sewers, and sewage collectors came through and got the poop from each house and carried it off to sell to farmers to use as fertilizer on their fields, just like in ancient China at the same time. In small villages (where most people lived), they didn't even have outhouses, and people just walked out to the fields every morning and pooped there.

Learn by doing: go camping and use a latrine or just the woods
More about Chinese sewage systems

Bibliography and further reading about Roman sewage:


City, by David Macaulay (1983). A detailed description, lavishly illustrated, of the construction of a Roman town. Incredibly accurate. Highly recommended for anyone interested in ancient Rome.

More Roman Architecture
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Professor Carr

Karen Eva Carr, PhD.
Assoc. Professor Emerita, History
Portland State University

Professor Carr holds a B.A. with high honors from Cornell University in classics and archaeology, and her M.A. and PhD. from the University of Michigan in Classical Art and Archaeology. She has excavated in Scotland, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, and Tunisia, and she has been teaching history to university students for a very long time.

Professor Carr's PSU page

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