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Married women in West Asia

By | 2017-09-15T16:26:06+00:00 September 15th, 2017|People, West Asia|

Grindstone from Syria, about 1500 BC (Louvre Museum) Most married women in West Asia lived with their husband's family, so young married women took orders from their husband's mother. Sometimes the two women got along well; other times they fought the way many teenagers fight with their parents. Some families hit or starved [...]

Who were the Scythians? Central Asian history

By | 2017-09-14T15:45:16+00:00 September 14th, 2017|Central Asia, History|

Scythian milking a sheep (Tolstaja Mogila kurgan, Ukraine, 400 BC) The Scythians were a large group of loosely connected people who lived in Russia. They also lived further south around the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.  Like the Hittites, the Greeks and the Germans, they were Indo-Europeans. We don't know when the Scythians first formed a group. But by 600 BC they were [...]

Sofia Baffo and the Ottoman Empire – 1600s AD

By | 2017-09-11T10:33:57+00:00 September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo Sofia Baffo took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1583 AD. She ruled through her husband Murad III after her aunt and mother-in-law Nurbanu died. In 1593, Sofia entered into a war with Austria. After Murad died in 1595, Sofia ruled through her son, Mehmed III. She continued the war with Austria. Sofia continued to [...]

Modern Iran – the Shah of Iran – history

By | 2017-09-11T08:42:13+00:00 September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Taking Iran's oil for the British navy in World War I Nasser al-Din was shot and killed in 1896, when he was 65 years old. His son Mozaffar ad-Din ruled after him. But Iran fell deeper and deeper into debt to Russia and Britain. The country became less and less independent. To pay the [...]

West Asian government – Ottomans and Safavids

By | 2017-09-11T00:20:10+00:00 September 11th, 2017|Government, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo (about 1600 AD) The two great kingdoms of West Asia between 1500 and 1900, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire, were both monarchies. So they were supposed to be ruled by a single man, the sultan or the shah. He inherited power from his father or his older brother or another male relative. The problem with [...]

Who were the Maya? Central American history

By | 2017-09-09T16:57:55+00:00 September 9th, 2017|Central America, History|

Maya royal palace at Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico (600s-700s AD) When the Olmec rulers began to lose control of their country about 600 BC, new leaders came forward and took over ruling in Central America (modern Guatemala). These were the Maya. Archaeologists divide Maya history into four time periods, the Pre-Classic, the Classic, and the Post-Classic. The [...]

Agrippina the Younger – history of Rome

By | 2017-09-02T17:20:37+00:00 September 2nd, 2017|History, Romans|

Agrippina the Younger. 49-50 AD. Now in Milan, in the Civic Archaeological Museum Agrippina the Younger was Caligula's oldest sister, so like him she was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder, and she was a great-granddaughter of Augustus. Agrippina was born at Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne) in 15 AD. So she was three [...]

War of the Spanish Succession

By | 2017-08-06T01:11:19+00:00 August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip V of Spain The War of the Spanish Succession was a war between Austria and France. They were fighting over which of them would rule Spain and all of Spain's colonies in North and South America. When Charles II of Spain died in 1700 AD, he left no sons. People disagreed about who should be the next [...]

Spain loses her colonies – 1800s

By | 2017-08-06T00:40:51+00:00 August 6th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Maria Christina Spain was among the first Western countries to get colonies in the 1500s, and it was among the first to lose its colonies in the 1800s. In 1821, Mexico and Peru both won their independence. At the same time, Spain began to rock back and forth between democracy and kings. King Ferdinand II began his reign [...]

Medieval England – History of Europe

By | 2017-08-02T17:40:31+00:00 August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Henry III of England King John died in 1216 AD, the year after John signed the Magna Carta. His son Henry III succeeded him. (Henry III was named after his grandfather Henry II.) Henry III was only nine years old when he became king. So he pretty much had to do whatever the barons (the rich men) told him [...]