Safavids

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Safavid Empire – Iran in the 1600s

By |2018-04-25T23:21:06+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Battle of Hormuz Abbas, the Shah of Iran, after conquering most of what is now Iraq from the Ottomans, turned east again and took Kandahar (now in southern Afghanistan) from Nur Jahan of the Mughal Empire in 1622. As part of the same campaign, Abbas also - in an alliance with Queen Elizabeth of Britain - pushed [...]

What was the Safavid Empire? History of Iran

By |2018-04-25T23:04:50+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

The first Safavid, Ismail, kills the Uzbek leader Death of Timur When Timur died in 1405 AD, he left his empire to his sons, and they left it to their sons. But that last Mongol empire got gradually weaker and weaker. By 1506, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan broke up into many small kingdoms. Ismail and the Twelvers [...]

Ottoman Empire in the 1700s

By |2018-09-14T12:20:31+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Enderun Library, Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, 1719) Rabia rules the Ottoman Empire By 1703 AD, people were unhappy enough with Feyzullah Efendi that the Sultan killed him. Wait, who's Feyzullah Efendi? (Ottomans in the 1600s) Rabia's war with Russia The Sultan's mother, Rabia Gulnus, took charge of the government. Rabia's main worry was Peter the [...]

Sofia Baffo and the Ottoman Empire – 1600s AD

By |2018-09-16T12:38:21+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo Sofia Baffo - a woman in charge Sofia Baffo took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1583 AD. She ruled through her husband Murad III after her aunt and mother-in-law Nurbanu died. In 1593, Sofia entered into a war with Austria. What was going on before Sofia Baffo? After Murad died in 1595, Sofia ruled [...]

Suleiman the Magnificent – Ottoman history

By |2018-04-25T23:04:50+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Mehmed II When Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 AD, he made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire. He took for himself the title of "Kayser-i-Rum" - Caesar of Rome, or Roman Emperor. It was impossible to think of the Roman Empire as being ended. So the Ottoman sultans thought of themselves as continuing the power of [...]

West Asian government – Ottomans and Safavids

By |2017-09-11T00:20:10+00:00September 11th, 2017|Government, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo (about 1600 AD) The two great kingdoms of West Asia between 1500 and 1900, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire, were both monarchies. So they were supposed to be ruled by a single man, the sultan or the shah. He inherited power from his father or his older brother or another male relative. The problem with [...]

Steel history – medieval to modern steel

By |2018-09-10T06:07:42+00:00September 7th, 2017|Central Asia, Science|

Steel history: a Safavid steel helmet (Iran, 1500s AD) Medieval steel from India and Iran The wars after the collapse of the Mongol Empire in the 1300s stopped steel production in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. But metal-workers kept on making high quality crucible steel in India and Iran under the Pandyas, the Mughals, and the Safavid Empire. The wars also made it hard [...]

Who were the Mughals? The Mughal Empire – History of India

By |2018-01-08T22:51:50+00:00July 19th, 2017|History, India, Where|

Mughal Empire - Babur, first Mughal ruler Timur's descendants: the Mughal Empire Timur's empire collapsed when he died in 1405 AD. Then the Mongols lost control of India for a while. Local Muslim leaders formed small states in northern India. But a generation later, Mongol leaders invaded India again and forced the Indians into a new empire, the Mughal Empire. [...]

Qianlong Emperor – Qing Dynasty China

By |2018-05-17T11:25:12+00:00June 4th, 2017|China, History|

Qianlong Emperor wearing his armor (ca. 1750 AD) Qing Dynasty in the 1700s AD The Qing Dynasty continued to rule strongly until near the end of the 1700s AD. In 1735, the Yongsheng Emperor died and his son, the 24-year-old Qianlong Emperor, took power. Like his father and grandfather, the Qianlong Emperor kept [...]