RNA

/Tag: RNA

Hadean Eon – Earth, Moon, proteins, RNA

By |2019-07-31T13:18:23-07:00June 24th, 2017|Geology|

In the Hadean Eon, Earth was covered with active volcanoes like this one. Why is it called the Hadean Eon? Scientists named the Hadean Eon after the Greek god Hades, who ruled the underworld. That's because during most of the Hadean period the surface of the Earth must have been like the Christian [...]

What are amino acids? Organic chemistry

By |2019-01-24T12:13:44-07:00June 2nd, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles, Chemistry|

A model of the amino acid molecule glycine (red is oxygen, black is carbon, yellow is hydrogen, and blue is nitrogen atoms) What are amino acids? Amino acids are molecules made out of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen atoms (and a little sulphur). More about hydrogen What are molecules? All our chemistry articles When [...]

What is phosphorus? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2017-06-02T15:39:41-07:00June 2nd, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles, Chemistry|

Diagram of a phosphorus atom Phosphorus atoms have fifteen protons and sixteen neutrons, so they're just a little lighter than sulphur atoms, in the middle of the range for atoms. Stars make phosphorus when two oxygen atoms get very hot and squash together into one phosphorus atom. All living things, both plants and [...]

What is nitrogen? Atoms, Elements, Chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:22-07:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of a nitrogen atom Inside a red giant star, the star smashes lighter atoms together. Smashing atoms gets the star energy to burn, and also leaves extra heavier atoms. Nitrogen is one of these heavier atoms, left over when a star smashes together carbon atoms. Nitrogen is not very heavy, though, and a [...]

Evolution of Cells – Biology

By |2018-04-13T17:03:50-07:00May 29th, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles|

A mutated snake with two heads With all these new molecules like lipids, amino acids, RNA, and protein floating around in the oceans by around four billion years ago, there were a lot of new possibilities for what could bump into what. Sometimes a group of lipid molecules happened to stick together and [...]

Natural Selection – Evolution and Biology

By |2017-05-29T17:09:11-07:00May 29th, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles|

The feet of a person with six toes on each foot Whenever protons and electrons bump into each other, or atoms bump into each other, or molecules bump into each other, or prokaryotic cells bump into each other, or DNA molecules inside cells divide - whenever any of these things happen, they can happen [...]

What is RNA? Cell biology and evolution

By |2018-04-16T00:39:56-07:00May 29th, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles|

RNA molecule: A single strand of RNA, seen under an electron microscope The RNA molecule was probably one of the earliest steps towards life on Earth. RNA is short for "ribonucleic acid". That's a very long, complicated molecule made out of amino acids linked together. The amino acids are made out of atoms of [...]

Cell reproduction – Biology

By |2019-03-08T06:54:01-07:00May 29th, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles|

A cell dividing into two cells The first reproduction One of the main ways we define whether something is alive is whether it can reproduce - if it can make a new version of itself. The first things we know about that could reproduce were molecules of RNA, more than four billion years ago. What is [...]

What are proteinoids? Thermal proteins – Biology

By |2017-05-29T00:59:08-07:00May 29th, 2017|Biology - Evolution, from cells to modern mammals, birds, and reptiles|

Thermal proteins seen through a microscope Around four billion years ago, some of the amino acid molecules that were on the planet Earth began to join together into bigger molecules with hundreds of atoms in them, called themal proteins. Probably this happened in places where the water in the oceans on Earth was [...]