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Permian period – Reptiles and pine trees

By |2018-04-21T11:56:38+00:00June 24th, 2017|Biology, Geology|

Crocodiles About 290 million years ago, the Carboniferous period ended and the Permian period began. Almost all of the land on Earth grouped together in one big supercontinent we call Pangaea, which reached all the way from the North Pole to the South Pole. With all the land grouped together, the climate got [...]

What are conifers? Pine trees, gymnosperms

By |2018-04-21T11:56:36+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Spruce tree - a type of gymnosperm and conifer Near the end of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, the land on Earth got a lot drier than it had been before. It was drier because plate tectonics was bringing all of the land together into one big continent, Pangaea. Plants that [...]

Seeds – Plant reproduction – Biology

By |2018-04-13T17:51:52+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Evolution of seeds: Dandelion seeds What is a seed? A seed is the egg cell of a plant, with a hard wrapper around it so it can survive on its own. The earliest plants with seeds evolved from plants with spores during the late Devonian period, about 360 million years ago. The seeds [...]

Plant reproduction – Biology – Science

By |2018-04-13T17:52:39+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Cell division The very earliest photosynthesizing plants on Earth, about 3 billion years ago, had only one cell, and they reproduced the way most one-celled creatures do, by mitosis: splitting themselves in half. By about two billion years ago, some of these cells began to split themselves in a more sophisticated way, called [...]

What are cycads? Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-16T10:33:47+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Cycad trees. They look like palm trees but they are very different! At the end of the Carboniferous period, about 300 million years ago, the only kinds of plants on Earth were mosses and ferns. Some of the ferns were giant ferns as big as trees are now. Then in the late Carboniferous [...]

What are reptiles? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-21T11:56:35+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Boa Constrictor snake Some kinds of amphibians evolved into reptiles about 300 million years ago. At this time, plate tectonics had moved more and more of the land on Earth into one big continent called Pangaea. All the land being together changed the weather so that it was drier and colder than before. That [...]