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What makes thunder and lightning? – Weather science

By |2018-04-24T15:20:20+00:00August 20th, 2017|Physics|

A bolt of lightning in the sky Hot air and cold air are constantly moving around the Earth, as the hot air rises and the cold air sinks - that's what makes wind. Sometimes as this airmoves around, it gets more exciting than just wind, though. A thunderstorm begins when the wind picks up a lot of water from the [...]

Radioactivity and nuclear physics

By |2018-04-24T14:44:18+00:00August 17th, 2017|Physics|

A Japanese girl who lost her hair from radiation sickness from the atomic bomb Americans dropped on Hiroshima Some atoms are naturally radioactive, especially atoms of uranium and plutonium. These atoms have so many protons and neutrons that even the strong nuclear force is barely strong enough to hold them together, and they sometimes lose a proton or a [...]

What is centrifugal force? Physics definitions

By |2018-05-31T11:49:24+00:00August 16th, 2017|Islam, Physics|

Kids playing tetherball using centrifugal force When something is going straight, it always keeps going straight unless something else stops it or turns it. (The Iranian scientist Ibn Sina figured this out about 1000 AD). If it can't go straight, then it goes as straight as it can. So when you hit a tetherball, it [...]

What is a photon? Physics of light

By |2018-05-31T11:49:28+00:00August 16th, 2017|Physics|

Photons - Sunshine breaking through the clouds. When did the first photons appear? A photon is a tiny little particle of light, far too small to see individually. All light is made of photons (FOE-tahns). The earliest photons probably appeared about fifteen billion years ago, during the Big Bang. What's the speed of light? Unlike electrons and quarks, [...]

What are magnets? Physics and electricity

By |2018-05-31T11:49:22+00:00August 16th, 2017|Physics|

A magnet holding a steel bar Magnetism is a force created by electricity, or more specifically by electrons. In any iron atom, there are 26 electrons. Each electron has a tiny bit of negative charge. The way these electrons behave is impossible for us to imagine, because it's not like anything we can see. But we can [...]

What is electricity? Physics

By |2018-06-01T10:27:39+00:00August 16th, 2017|Physics|

What is electricity? A bolt of lightning in the sky What is electricity made of? Everything in the universe is made of atoms.  Those atoms are made of electricity. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electricity is electrons that have gotten loose from their atom. (More about electrons) The protons and neutrons [...]

What is metal? Chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:23+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Copper ore in Iran Metals are atoms that attach themselves to other atoms in a particular way. Metal atoms, because of how their electrons are arranged, lose their electrons easily. When they join up with other atoms to make molecules, metal atoms join together by exchanging electrons. Because metal atoms join other metal [...]

What is the strong nuclear force? Atoms and Physics

By |2018-04-16T23:47:52+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Physics|

Diagram of an iron atom The protons inside the nucleus of an atom all have a positive electrical charge, so they push away from each other. But the strong nuclear force pulls the protons together. As you might think from the name, the strong nuclear force is very strong. It is stronger than [...]

What is iron? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:24+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of an iron atom When a red giant star finishes changing all of its helium into carbon and oxygen, it then starts to turn the carbon and oxygen atoms into iron atoms. Iron is the heaviest kind of atom that a star can make, so when a star has made most of its carbon and oxygen [...]