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What’s the atmosphere? Weather science

By |2019-02-05T05:47:27+00:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

Earth's atmosphere: Did the Earth look like this right after it cooled down? What is the atmosphere? The atmosphere is the air that is wrapped all around a planet. Read more about planets Why is the sky blue? All our physics articles Do all planets have atmospheres? Not all planets have atmospheres. In order [...]

Mars, the red planet – Astronomy

By |2018-05-31T11:49:29+00:00August 18th, 2017|Physics|

Mars, the way the planet looks from space The closest planet to Earth is Mars, and Mars is also the planet that seems most likely to have life on it besides our own Earth. It's the next planet further away from the Sun after Earth. When you look at Mars from Earth, it looks reddish, and even [...]

What happened in the Cretaceous Period?

By |2018-04-21T11:56:37+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology|

Volcano erupting During the Cretaceous period, beginning about 145 million years ago, the continents continued to drift away from each other, so that the mammals, birds, and dinosaurs on different continents evolved separately and got more and more different from each other. As the continents separated, the climate got cooler and rainier, and [...]

Global warming in modern times

By |2017-06-20T01:27:44+00:00June 20th, 2017|Environment, Science|

Coal plant in China Human activities probably started to affect the world's climate as early as about 10,000 BC. That's when people started farming and cut down a whole lot of trees to create their fields. Trees take in carbon dioxide and convert it to oxygen. So without them, carbon dioxide levels rose, [...]

What is oxygen? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:22+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of an oxygen atom When a star has changed all of its hydrogen atoms into helium, it turns into a red giant and moves on to convert the helium atoms into carbon atoms and oxygen atoms. All of the oxygen in the universe starts out inside stars. Then when all the helium is used up, [...]

Dry Ice – Carbon dioxide chemistry project

By |2018-04-16T17:38:03+00:00June 1st, 2017|Chemistry|

Frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice) Normally you can't see carbon dioxide because it is an invisible gas. But if you get some frozen carbon dioxide (also called dry ice), you can see it as chunks of ice. You can get dry ice from some grocery stores, or ice cream stores. Put it in [...]

What are covalent bonds? – Atoms and Chemistry

By |2018-05-13T15:24:42+00:00June 1st, 2017|Chemistry|

Covalent bonds: two hydrogen molecules bonding to an oxygen molecule Covalent bonds stick atoms together When two atoms come near each other, sometimes they stick together to make a molecule. One way they can stick together is by covalent bonding. (More about molecules) Are covalent bonds stronger than ionic bonds? In covalent bonding, the [...]

What is carbon dioxide? Molecules and Chemistry

By |2017-06-01T13:27:02+00:00June 1st, 2017|Chemistry|

Carbon dioxide is one of the simplest and commonest molecules in the universe. It has only three Atoms - one carbon and two oxygen atoms. It's easy for the carbon atoms to join up with oxygen atoms because the outer shell (the valance shell) of the carbon atom has only four electrons in it, leaving room [...]