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Galen and Roman medicine – doctors in the Roman Empire

By |2018-04-18T18:18:03+00:00September 4th, 2017|Romans, Science|

Roman medicine: Galen used surgical instruments like these Roman medicine is really West Asian and African medicine. That's because most of the great doctors of the Roman Empire lived in West Asia (in Turkey and Syria), or in Africa (in Egypt), not in Europe. These doctors started from earlier Egyptian, Indian, and Greek medical research. Like Egyptian [...]

What is Christian communion? History of religion

By |2017-08-21T18:22:28+00:00August 21st, 2017|Religion, Romans|

Maybe our earliest image of the Last Supper - from the Catacombs of Domitilla, 100s AD At the Last Supper, Jesus gave his disciples bread and wine. Then shortly after he was crucified, he appeared to Peter and again gave him bread and wine. Jesus told Peter that whenever he ate bread during the Mass, it would turn into the [...]

Medieval Islamic medicine – the first hospitals and quarantines

By |2018-04-18T18:18:05+00:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|

Islamic medicine: From an Ottoman manuscript, two doctors telling the pharmacist how to make different medicines Writing medical encyclopedias Doctors made big scientific advances in medicine during the Islamic empire. Islamic doctors began by collecting all the medical observations and logic of the past. They translated the work of Hippocrates and his followers, and Galen, into Arabic. About 750 [...]

al Nafis – Discoveries of Islamic scientists

By |2017-07-27T08:02:08+00:00July 27th, 2017|Islam, Science|

Illustration in Ibn al Nafis Ibn al Nafis was born in Syria in the early 1200s AD, just as the power of the Seljuks was collapsing. He studied medicine in Damascus (in Syria) at first, but then moved to Cairo, in Mamluk Egypt, to work with the best doctors of his time (and maybe to escape the Mongol [...]

History of Indian medicine

By |2018-09-27T12:21:49+00:00July 22nd, 2017|India, Science|

Indian medicine: the Atharva Veda manuscript: an Indian medical book Early Indian medicine Medicine got an early start in India. Even in the Stone Age, about 5000 BC, dentists at Mehrgahr were drilling people's teeth. They tried to fix people's cavities. That's in the Indus River Valley (now in Pakistan). Where is Mehrgahr? History of medicine The [...]

Dionysos and the dolphins – Ancient Greece

By |2018-04-23T08:41:52+00:00July 12th, 2017|Greeks, Religion|

Dionysos turns a ship into grapevines, and the bad sailors into dolphins (Athenian black-figure vase from the 500s BC) One story about Dionysos, which you can see painted on this vase, is that he once disguised himself as a rich young man and sailed on a Greek merchant ship on the ocean. The [...]

What is iron? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2018-04-24T14:46:24+00:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of an iron atom When a red giant star finishes changing all of its helium into carbon and oxygen, it then starts to turn the carbon and oxygen atoms into iron atoms. Iron is the heaviest kind of atom that a star can make, so when a star has made most of its carbon and oxygen [...]

Circulatory System – Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-16T08:24:44+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Circulatory system: A dog heart What is the circulatory system? The circulatory system takes food and air from outside your body and brings it all over your body so that all your cells get the food and oxygen they need to stay alive. The earliest cells, about 3.8 billion years ago, didn't need [...]

Why do mosquitoes bite? Biology

By |2018-04-15T17:18:17+00:00May 25th, 2017|Biology|

Mosquitoes bite people: A mosquito on human skin Like bees, mosquitoes evolved from earlier flies and dragonflies about 200 million years ago, during the Jurassic period. Mosquitoes have six legs like other insects. Also like bees, mosquitoes evolved to eat pollen from the new flowers that appeared about this time. And like bees, mosquitoes [...]