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Jurassic Period – dinosaurs and ferns

By |2018-04-21T11:56:46+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology, When|

A dinosaur skeleton When the Jurassic period began, about 199 million years ago, a lot of animals had just become extinct in the catastrophe that ended the Triassic period. This left room for the dinosaurs to have a lot of baby dinosaurs. Soon all different kinds of dinosaurs were living all over the [...]

What happened in the Cretaceous Period?

By |2018-04-21T11:56:37+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology|

Volcano erupting During the Cretaceous period, beginning about 145 million years ago, the continents continued to drift away from each other, so that the mammals, birds, and dinosaurs on different continents evolved separately and got more and more different from each other. As the continents separated, the climate got cooler and rainier, and [...]

Where do turkeys come from? Central America

By |2018-07-03T08:33:06+00:00June 23rd, 2017|Central America, Food|

Wild turkeys Turkeys evolved from earlier birds. The ancestors of the turkey evolved about 100 million years ago, from the dinosaurs that were alive at that time. By about 11 million years ago, turkeys had evolved to be different from pheasants. Turkeys are related to chickens, but wild chickens lived mainly in East [...]

Eggs – Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-16T10:33:22+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Fish eggs The earliest living creatures made babies by dividing themselves in half, so that one cell became two cells. But about 1.4 billion years ago, some creatures with more than one cell began to develop specialized cells that could combine with the cells from another creature to make a new creature. These were [...]

How do animals breathe? Respiration, Evolution, Biology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:44+00:00May 27th, 2017|Biology|

Fish gills The first cells, which evolved about 3.8 billion years ago, needed carbon dioxide to live and not oxygen. They needed the carbon dioxide to help them break down molecules to get energy out of them, and they were able to get the carbon dioxide they needed from the oceans they lived [...]

What are mollusks? What’s a cephalopod? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-16T08:32:28+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Evolution of mollusks: Slugs are a kind of mollusk. When did the first mollusks appear? Mollusks are animals like mussels, clams, snails and slugs. Their name means "soft", because mollusks don't have any skeletons. The first mollusks probably evolved from early segmented worms around 500 million years ago.  That was in the Cambrian period. At [...]

What are reptiles? Biology and Evolution

By |2018-04-21T11:56:35+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Boa Constrictor snake Some kinds of amphibians evolved into reptiles about 300 million years ago. At this time, plate tectonics had moved more and more of the land on Earth into one big continent called Pangaea. All the land being together changed the weather so that it was drier and colder than before. That [...]

Bird Feathers – a bird project – Biology

By |2018-04-15T17:24:27+00:00May 25th, 2017|Biology|

A bird feather Observing bird feathers You can see how bird feathers work for yourself. First, go to a park or a place where there are pigeons and find a bird feather. Or you can buy nice clean chicken or duck feathers at a craft store. Hold the feather in your hand. You'll [...]