Geology

/Geology
21 09, 2017

What is plate tectonics? Earthquakes and volcanoes

By |2019-08-16T08:59:53-07:00September 21st, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

Plate tectonics: The world as seen from space (flattened out) The continents move around When you look at a map of the world, it seems as though it was always like that - North America on top of South America, Europe north of Africa, Australia off at the bottom right. But really all of the dry land on Earth moves [...]

26 06, 2017

What causes volcanoes? Geology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:42-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

Volcano erupting Volcanoes are places where the plates of the Earth's surface have cracks in them, so that the very hot melted rocks that are under the tectonic plates bubble up to the surface. We call the hot melted rocks magma. The magma is under a lot of pressure inside the Earth's plates, [...]

26 06, 2017

What is salt made of? Geology

By |2017-06-26T02:22:44-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

Evaporated sea salt Salt molecules are a combination of chlorine atoms and sodium atoms. These atoms mix together easily and, once they are mixed, the salt molecule is very stable and doesn't break apart easily. There is salt on meteors in outer space and on Mars, and probably on lots of other planets [...]

26 06, 2017

What are sedimentary rocks? Shale and limestone

By |2018-10-03T09:50:54-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology, History|0 Comments

Sedimentary rocks: Limestone cliffs in Saudi Arabia Before sedimentary rocks When the Earth was first forming, about six billion years ago, there weren't any sedimentary or metamorphic rocks. The only rocks were igneous rocks like quartz. These formed when melted silica, carbon, and other molecules cooled off and stuck together. More about igneous rocks [...]

26 06, 2017

What is jade? Metamorphic rock

By |2019-09-18T07:51:37-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|2 Comments

What is jade? Jade rock from Alaska Jadeite and nephrite Jade is really two kinds of metamorphic rock, jadeite and nephrite, that look pretty much exactly the same. Scientists can tell them apart using chemical tests and x-rays. Like quartz, both jadeite and nephrite are chains of silicon and oxygen atoms. Why is [...]

26 06, 2017

What is metamorphic rock? Marble, slate, diamonds

By |2018-05-28T16:21:09-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

What is metamorphic rock? Slate rocks in Cascadilla Gorge, Ithaca, New York Metamorphic rocks form under pressure About 450 million years ago, some of the sedimentary rocks began to transform into metamorphic rocks. When sedimentary rocks like limestone or shale were under water, the weight of the water pressed them down. (Read more [...]

26 06, 2017

What is quartz? Igneous rock

By |2018-09-06T07:27:12-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

What is quartz? A chunk of white quartz What is quartz made of? Quartz is an igneous rock made out of molecules of silicon and oxygen atoms held together in a crystal pattern. All of the silica and oxygen that make quartz came originally from the insides of stars, and it shot out [...]

26 06, 2017

What are igneous rocks? Volcanic stone

By |2019-09-10T05:42:47-07:00June 26th, 2017|Geology|0 Comments

Igneous rocks: Obsidian tools What does "igneous" mean? Igneous means "fiery", and igneous rocks are rocks that were made by heating them up in a fire. Usually that fire is the big fire inside the earth, under the earth's crust. The first scientist who identified this kind of rock was ibn Sina. He [...]