Ottoman Empire

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Islamic North Africa – caravans across the Sahara

By |2018-02-22T09:23:58+00:00October 3rd, 2017|Africa, History|

Islamic North Africa: Kairouan mosque (ca. 800 AD) The Eastern Roman reconquest of North Africa in the 530s AD ended the Vandal kingdom there. But trade declined until the Islamic invasions of North Africa in the 600s AD and the establishment of the Umayyad, and then the Fatimid dynasties. Fatimids Under Islamic rule, North Africa became part of a [...]

Ottoman science – astronomy and clocks

By |2018-04-25T23:04:52+00:00September 11th, 2017|Science, West Asia|

Taqi al-Din in his observatory Ottoman scholars built many libraries in Istanbul and in other cities of the Ottoman Empire. They translated many earlier books into Turkish or Arabic, like the works of the Roman astronomer Ptolemy. Ottoman scholars also continued to make their own new investigations. The mathematician Ali Qushji, for instance, came [...]

Writers of the Ottoman Empire – West Asia

By |2018-04-25T23:04:51+00:00September 11th, 2017|Literature, West Asia|

Ottoman literature: A copy of one of Mustafa Ali's books, from about 1600 AD Ottoman literature in the 1500s and 1600s Despite the lack of printing presses, some writers and historians continued to work in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1500s, Mustafa Ali, a court bureaucrat, wrote poetry and religious essays. İn the [...]

Printing presses in the Ottoman Empire

By |2018-04-25T23:04:51+00:00September 11th, 2017|Literature, West Asia|

Ibrahim Mutafferika's illustration of American bison (1728 AD) One of the great new inventions of Renaissance Europe was the printing press with movable type. But one of the great disadvantages of the Ottoman Empire was that they didn't start using printing presses. They didn't publish books, pamphlets, or newspapers until much later - [...]

Ottoman Empire in the 1700s

By |2018-09-14T12:20:31+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Enderun Library, Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, 1719) Rabia rules the Ottoman Empire By 1703 AD, people were unhappy enough with Feyzullah Efendi that the Sultan killed him. Wait, who's Feyzullah Efendi? (Ottomans in the 1600s) Rabia's war with Russia The Sultan's mother, Rabia Gulnus, took charge of the government. Rabia's main worry was Peter the [...]

Ottoman Empire Pashas – 1656-1700 AD

By |2018-04-25T23:04:50+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Venice and the Ottoman Fleet in a naval battle (1661) Koprulu Mehmed Pasha only ruled for five years before he died, but in that time he rescued the Ottoman navy from the Venetians, and he won battles in the Balkans against Hungary that made the Ottoman Empire bigger. When he died in 1661, [...]

Sofia Baffo and the Ottoman Empire – 1600s AD

By |2018-09-16T12:38:21+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo Sofia Baffo - a woman in charge Sofia Baffo took control of the Ottoman Empire in 1583 AD. She ruled through her husband Murad III after her aunt and mother-in-law Nurbanu died. In 1593, Sofia entered into a war with Austria. What was going on before Sofia Baffo? After Murad died in 1595, Sofia ruled [...]

Suleiman the Magnificent – Ottoman history

By |2018-04-25T23:04:50+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Mehmed II When Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453 AD, he made it the capital of the Ottoman Empire. He took for himself the title of "Kayser-i-Rum" - Caesar of Rome, or Roman Emperor. It was impossible to think of the Roman Empire as being ended. So the Ottoman sultans thought of themselves as continuing the power of [...]

Nader Shah – history of Iran – the 1700s

By |2018-04-25T23:04:48+00:00September 11th, 2017|History, West Asia|

Nader Shah (Iran, 1736-1747) In 1736 AD, Nader Shah overthrew the last Safavid shah and established the country of Iran, with himself as the Shah (king) of Iran. Like Genghis Khan, Nader Shah was from a Turkish family. Apparently he and his mother were captured as slaves by the Uzbeks when he was a child. Like Genghis Khan, Nader Shah [...]

West Asian government – Ottomans and Safavids

By |2017-09-11T00:20:10+00:00September 11th, 2017|Government, West Asia|

Sofia Baffo (about 1600 AD) The two great kingdoms of West Asia between 1500 and 1900, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire, were both monarchies. So they were supposed to be ruled by a single man, the sultan or the shah. He inherited power from his father or his older brother or another male relative. The problem with [...]