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South American environment

By |2018-04-19T15:03:07+00:00September 8th, 2017|Environment, South America|

The Andes mountains run down the Pacific side of South America South America is a long, narrow continent running from the equator down nearly to the South Pole. So the north part of South America, near the equator, is generally hot and wet. In the south part of South America, near the South Pole, [...]

Moses and Egypt – Bible stories

By |2018-05-22T23:49:22+00:00August 24th, 2017|Africa, Religion, West Asia|

The Pharaoh's daughter picks Moses up out of his basket (synagogue at Dura Europos, Syria, 200s AD) The Book of Exodus According to the Book of Exodus in the Bible ("Exodus" means leaving, because this is the book about the Jews leaving Egypt), the Jews did very well in Egypt after Joseph brought them there. (More about [...]

Emily Dickinson – American poetry

By |2018-04-24T10:41:38+00:00August 14th, 2017|Literature, North America|

Emily Dickinson I'm Nobody (1891) I'm nobody! Who are you? Are you nobody, too? Then there's a pair of us--don't tell! They'd banish us, you know. How dreary to be somebody! How public, like a frog To tell your name the livelong day To an admiring bog! American Poetry Project American Literature Tom [...]

Who was Aristophanes? Greek playwright

By |2018-04-23T08:37:16+00:00July 9th, 2017|Greeks, History|

Aristophanes: Greek krater bowl for mixing water and wine, with a scene from a comedy on it (Probably the Tarpoley Painter, about 400 BC) Political comedy Aristophanes (arr-iss-TA-fa-knees) lived in Athens at about the same time as Euripides, about 450-388 BC. But Aristophanes wrote comedies instead of tragedies. Most of Aristophanes' plays are [...]

Eggs – Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-16T10:33:22+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Fish eggs The earliest living creatures made babies by dividing themselves in half, so that one cell became two cells. But about 1.4 billion years ago, some creatures with more than one cell began to develop specialized cells that could combine with the cells from another creature to make a new creature. These were [...]

Evolution of bones – Skeletons and Biology

By |2017-05-28T00:44:16+00:00May 28th, 2017|Biology|

A fish skeleton One-celled animals don't have any support system that holds them in a certain shape. Plants do have a support system, but it's the cellulose in the cell wall of each cell, rather than bones. Early multi-celled animals like jellyfish and sponges and worms also didn't have skeletons, but beginning with [...]

How do animals breathe? Respiration, Evolution, Biology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:44+00:00May 27th, 2017|Biology|

Fish gills The first cells, which evolved about 3.8 billion years ago, needed carbon dioxide to live and not oxygen. They needed the carbon dioxide to help them break down molecules to get energy out of them, and they were able to get the carbon dioxide they needed from the oceans they lived [...]

Reproductive System – Evolution and Biology

By |2018-04-16T08:57:39+00:00May 27th, 2017|Biology|

Reproduction: Hydra budding new hydras RNA and DNA molecules The first form of reproduction began about four billion years ago, when first RNA molecules and then DNA molecules began to make new copies of themselves by letting amino acids hook on to the parent molecule and then splitting them off. All reproduction since then [...]

What are intestines? Evolution and Digestion

By |2017-09-17T09:06:21+00:00May 26th, 2017|Biology|

Whale intestines (from Medicine Chest) The first animals to have anything like an intestine evolved around 548 million years ago. These were roundworms, just a few millimeters long, and they had just a simple tube running from their mouth to their anus - no stomach in the middle. But already these roundworm guts [...]