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Jurassic Period – dinosaurs and ferns

By |2018-04-21T11:56:46+00:00June 24th, 2017|Geology, When|

A dinosaur skeleton When the Jurassic period began, about 199 million years ago, a lot of animals had just become extinct in the catastrophe that ended the Triassic period. This left room for the dinosaurs to have a lot of baby dinosaurs. Soon all different kinds of dinosaurs were living all over the [...]

Devonian Period – Gondwana, ferns, lungfish

By |2018-04-21T11:56:37+00:00June 24th, 2017|Biology, Geology|

Coelocanth Four hundred and sixteen million years ago, when the Silurian period ended and the Devonian period began, most of the land on Earth was clumped together into a supercontinent called Gondwana. At this time the only creatures that lived on land were small plants like moss and lichens, mushrooms, and other fungi, [...]

History of Coal – Central Asian science

By |2018-09-27T06:43:01+00:00June 1st, 2017|Central Asia, Science|

History of coal: These are lumps of coal What is coal made of? Most of the coal on Earth formed during the Carboniferous Period about 350 million years ago, when giant ferns growing in wetlands were flooded and buried under a blanket of mud before they could rot. What happened in the Carboniferous [...]

What is a spore? – Plant reproduction – Biology

By |2018-04-13T23:51:51+00:00May 30th, 2017|Biology|

Fern spores on the underside of a frond When plants like moss first began to grow outside the water, about 540 million years ago, they needed a way to reproduce themselves that didn't depend on water so much. Some of these plants evolved to be able to produce spores. To make spores, plants [...]

Ginkgo trees – Plant evolution and biology

By |2018-04-21T11:56:44+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Gingko trees Ginkgo trees were the first kind of tree. The first ginkgo trees on earth appeared during the Permian period, about 270 million years ago. This was during the time of the early dinosaurs. Because at this time all of the earth's land was grouped together in one continent, Pangaea, ginkgo trees spread [...]

What are ferns? Plant biology and evolution

By |2018-04-16T10:34:27+00:00May 29th, 2017|Biology|

Ferns growing in a forest The first ferns - the first plants that had leaves - evolved from plants that were more like moss. Ferns evolved about 360 million years ago, during the Carboniferous era. Like moss, most ferns grow in places where there is plenty of water: usually near the banks of streams. But [...]