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Damaris Masham – European philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:29-07:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Damaris Masham's house, Oates, in England Damaris Masham's dad was a philosopher, and when she grew up her boyfriend, John Locke, was also a philosopher. So it's not surprising that she was a philosopher too. Masham got married when she was 26, to Francis Masham, who owned a big farm near London in England. He [...]

Simone de Beauvoir – European philosophy

By |2019-05-02T07:07:21-07:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Simone de Beauvoir was a philosopher Simone de Beauvoir's childhood Simone de Beauvoir's family lost most of their money after World War I. But by the early 1900s, even struggling families tried to send their daughters to school. De Beauvoir and her sister went to a good convent school. De Beauvoir thought of becoming a [...]

Mary Astell – European philosophy

By |2019-02-04T06:09:16-07:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Mary Astell Mary Astell's backstory Unlike the slightly older Masham, and most other Enlightenment philosophers, Mary Astell was not from a really rich family. Who was Damaris Masham? Enlightenment philosophers All our modern Europe articles Mary Astell grew up in England. Like other girls in the 1600s AD, Astell never went to school, though her family [...]

Albigensians – Cathars – Crusade

By |2019-01-21T10:25:15-07:00August 4th, 2017|Medieval, Religion|

Albigensians were also called Cathars This story starts about 1050 AD, not long after the Capetians took power in northern France. Some Christian people in the south of France began to think differently about God from the other Christians around them. These Christians called themselves "Good Christians." Other people called them Cathars (from a Greek word for 'pure'), or Albigensians (because some [...]

Buddhist nuns in ancient India and China

By |2017-08-12T16:37:36-07:00July 21st, 2017|India, Religion|

Modern Buddhist nuns in northern India The earliest Buddhists in India were both men and women, and there were Buddhist nuns as early as Buddhist monks. Some early Buddhist monastic communities had both men and women. This is normal for movements that are just getting started and have a lot of radical members who believe in equality. [...]