Charlemagne

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What does it mean to be Pope? History of Christianity

By |2018-04-24T23:11:02+00:00August 23rd, 2017|Religion, Romans|

Peter and Paul, in a mosaic from Ravenna (500s AD) In the later Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, the Pope was the leader of the Catholic Church. Whenever there was a question about whether God would like something or not, people could ask the Pope, and he would tell them what God wanted. According to [...]

Mary’s dress – Medieval Chartres

By |2018-09-01T06:36:45+00:00August 4th, 2017|History|

Mary's tunic, preserved in a glass case in the treasury of Chartres cathedral in France Romantic story of Mary's dress According to a popular story, about 800 AD, Irene, the Empress of the Roman Empire in Eastern Europe and West Asia, wanted to become more friendly with Charlemagne, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire in [...]

Holy Roman Empire – Late Middle Ages

By |2017-08-03T12:01:04+00:00August 3rd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was only two years old when his father died in 1197 AD. So there were several civil wars over who held power while he grew up. Once he did grow up, Frederick II ruled both Germany and Italy for a long time. Like his father and grandfather, he was [...]

Early Medieval Italy

By |2018-04-15T16:50:54+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Lombard shield boss (to make spears slide off it) (Metropolitan Museum, New York) In 774 AD, Charlemagne conquered northern Italy from the Lombards. Soon after that Charlemagne got the Pope to name him the Holy Roman Emperor. For the next three hundred years, northern Italy was in the hands of the Holy Roman Emperor. That is, it belonged [...]

Carolingian Empire – Medieval History

By |2018-04-12T00:08:01+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Louis the Pious (ca. 820 AD) After Charlemagne died in 814 AD, his son Louis inherited the empire, and then Louis's three sons divided his empire between them. One son took the west (mostly modern France), and one son took the east (mostly modern Germany) and one son took the middle (modern Switzerland and Belgium). The [...]

Early Middle Ages – Dark Age Europe

By |2017-08-02T16:40:06+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Interior of Hagia Sophia The Early Middle Ages comes after the fall of Rome, about 400 AD. But all the way through the Early Middle Ages, European people still thought of themselves as living in the Roman Empire and being Romans. Even armies who had invaded by force thought they were Romans. Even armies who [...]

The Lombards – Early Medieval Italy

By |2018-04-15T16:50:52+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Lombard Christian altar (700s AD) (University of Alabama) In 568 AD, a Turkic people, the Avars, pushed the Indo-European Lombards out of their home in Central Europe. This was the westernmost edge of a general tendency for Turkic people to take over more of Asia around this time. The Lombards moved south into northern Italy, and conquered it from [...]

Otto the Great and the Holy Roman Empire

By |2018-05-07T11:20:05+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Holy Roman Empire: Otto the Great (on a seal) What happened after Charlemagne? After the death of Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Emperors got weaker and weaker. By 924 AD, a hundred years later, nobody even held the title officially. But in 962 AD a German king named Otto got the Pope to name him Holy Roman Emperor anyway, and that started the Holy [...]

Who was Charlemagne? Early Middle Ages

By |2018-06-18T12:57:00+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Who was Charlemagne? This is Charlemagne, or possibly his grandson (now in the Louvre Museum) What's Charlemagne's real name? Charlemagne's name is really Charles le Magne, or Charles the Great. In German they call him Karl der Grosse, which also means Charles the Great. How did Charlemagne get into power? Charlemagne's father, Pippin, left Charlemagne his [...]

The Avars – Early Middle Ages

By |2018-03-21T15:11:55+00:00August 2nd, 2017|History, Medieval|

Grasslands of Central Asia - the steppe homeland of the Avars Ruled by the Rouran The Avars were a mostly Turkic group of people. We first hear of them living in Central Asia under the rule of the Rouran, in the 400s AD. The Chinese, who lived to their south-east, called the Avars the Juan-Juan. Like other Central [...]