Anne of Austria

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Iroquois history: the Revolutionary War

By |2018-04-24T10:20:26+00:00August 13th, 2017|History|

Iroquois history: Trade beads made in Venice in the 1600s and traded in North America Iroquois trade for beads and knives When the first European traders came to the north Atlantic coast, about 1600 AD, the Iroquois were very interested in trading with them. People sold the Dutch traders lots and lots of beaver furs to make hats with, and [...]

Algonquin tribe during European colonization

By |2018-04-09T15:49:40+00:00August 12th, 2017|History, Native American|

People of the Algonquin tribe in the 1700s AD Algonquin people sold beaver furs to European traders When European traders began to buy huge amounts of North American furs to sell in Europe and China, Algonquin hunters began to trap and hunt lots of animals, especially beaver, to get their fur to sell to the European traders. The [...]

Thomas Hobbes – European philosophy

By |2018-04-23T09:44:15+00:00August 7th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Thomas Hobbes, a European philosopher Thomas Hobbes (yes, he's the one that Calvin named his tiger after) lived in England, about fifty years after Calvin and about the same time as Descartes. While Hobbes' sister was kept at home, as a man Hobbes got to go to college at Oxford and read Thucydides, Aristotle, and other ancient authors. After [...]

Margaret Cavendish – European Philosophy

By |2018-04-11T18:19:38+00:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Margaret Cavendish Margaret Cavendish was a little younger than Hobbes and Descartes, but she knew both men. She had many philosophical debates with them when they were all living in Paris. Cavendish proposed that even things that seemed separate from your body, like thinking or dreaming, were really just part of the working of your brain. [...]

Mary Astell – European philosophy

By |2018-04-08T11:14:25+00:00August 6th, 2017|Modern Europe, Philosophy|

Mary Astell Unlike the slightly older Masham, and most other Enlightenment philosophers, Mary Astell was not from a really rich family. She grew up in England. Like other girls in the 1600s AD, Astell never went to school, though her family spent most of their savings to send her younger brother to school. When her parents [...]

Early Modern Spain – Philip II

By |2018-09-17T08:09:16+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Philip II of Spain Philip II of Spain As the great-grandson of Isabella, who had sent Columbus to America, Philip II ruled Spain in the mid-1500s AD. Philip also controlled huge Spanish territories in South and Central America, Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado and Texas. Philip also ruled the Netherlands and Flanders (now part of Belgium), north of France. As [...]

Early Modern France – Henry IV

By |2018-10-30T04:34:08+00:00August 5th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Henry IV of France Henry IV of France In 1589 AD, Catherine de Medici died in France, and her last son, Henry III, was killed a few months later. Henry III had no sons, and after a short civil war his 36 year old cousin, Henry IV, became the next king of France. Henry IV [...]

Anne of Austria, Queen of France

By |2018-09-24T06:18:07+00:00August 4th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Anne of Austria Anne of Austria rules France Cardinal Richelieu died in 1642 AD and Louis XIII died the next year, in 1643. Louis' wife, Anne of Austria, ruled after him as regent for her four year old son, Louis XIV. Who was Richelieu? What is a regent? European history articles Anne's minister Mazarin Anne was in [...]

Thirty Years’ War – Wars of religion

By |2018-04-08T11:14:17+00:00August 4th, 2017|History, Modern Europe|

Protestants throw Catholic officials out the window (Prague, 1618 AD) In the late 1500s AD, the Holy Roman Emperors were too weak to hold their empire together as one country. Instead, the Holy Roman Empire was divided into many little tiny countries. Some of these countries were Catholic. Some of them were Protestant. In 1618 [...]

Peter Paul Rubens – European art history

By |2017-08-04T15:40:52+00:00August 4th, 2017|Art, Modern Europe|

Rubens (self-portrait), 1620 AD Peter Paul Rubens was born in Germany in 1577. At that time, the Holy Roman Emperors were weak and there were a bunch of civil wars going on. His father, who was a lawyer, was also a Calvinist - a Protestant. The family fled to Cologne before Rubens was born, because of fighting between [...]