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Science in Islamic Africa – medieval African science

By |2018-10-04T06:52:15-07:00October 3rd, 2017|Africa, Science|

Medieval African science: The walls of Timbuktu, in Mali, West Africa Medieval African science In the 700s AD, the Islamic Empire conquered North Africa and began to trade a lot with East Africa. Islamic government did not allow women to work in science or medicine. But there were a lot of men in North Africa and East Africa, and in the area [...]

Supernova – Space – Astronomy

By |2018-05-31T11:49:31-07:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

Supernova from space (thanks to NASA and the Hubble Telescope) What is a supernova? Supernovas are exploding stars. Red giant stars explode when they have used up their hydrogen and helium fuel, and converted most of their atoms to iron atoms. A red giant star explodes Red giant stars have a lot of gravity pulling them inward. Normally they don't collapse inward because the nuclear [...]

What’s the sun made of? – Astronomy – Science

By |2018-04-24T14:46:25-07:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

The sun from space The Sun is a star, just like billions of other stars in the universe. Our Sun probably formed a little more than four and a half billion years ago, just a little bit before the planets formed around it. It's not one of the older stars in the Universe. Probably some of [...]

Different types of stars – Astronomy – Space

By |2018-05-31T11:49:31-07:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

The Eagle Nebula Stars don't last forever, though they do last for billions of years. And they don't stay the same throughout their existence - they change over time. The earliest beginning of a star is called a nebula. A nebula is a cloud of hydrogen and a few helium atoms hanging in space. Sometimes a nebula just [...]

What are planets? Astronomy – Space science

By |2018-09-10T17:46:23-07:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

What are planets? The planet Venus from space Before there were planets For several hundred million years after the Big Bang, there were no planets, only stars. Planets couldn't form until the first stars ran out of fuel and exploded into supernovas, about 14 billion years ago. The supernovas spewed out thousands of tons of carbon, oxygen, iron and other elements into space. Planets [...]

What is a nebula? Space and astronomy

By |2018-05-31T11:49:30-07:00August 19th, 2017|Physics|

The Eagle Nebula A nebula is a bunch of atoms and molecules floating in outer space, like a cloud of dust. More than one nebula are called nebulae, because -ae is the plural ending in Latin, just as -s is the plural ending in English. Nebula is the Latin word for a cloud. The earliest nebulae formed just [...]

What is a Comet? – Astronomy – Space

By |2019-04-18T05:32:51-07:00August 17th, 2017|Physics|

A comet in the night sky What are comets made of? Comets are balls of leftover rock and ice in space. They started out when a star exploded into a supernova. What is a supernova? More about ice All our space articles When were the first comets? A nebula formed, and then most of the material in our nebula merged together, about [...]

Black holes – Space science – Physics

By |2019-02-20T19:38:04-07:00August 17th, 2017|Physics|

A starry sky with the Milky Way galaxy (thanks to Bernd Nies) - there are probably black holes in there somewhere! What is a black hole? A black hole is a place in space where there is a huge amount of mass in a very small area. More about space What is mass? All our physics articles Why [...]

What is water made of? Molecules and chemistry

By |2017-06-02T18:02:44-07:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

A big ocean wave The first molecules of water formed out in space, about 14 billion years ago, as part of the nebula left over after an early star exploded in a supernova. There were a lot of hydrogen and oxygen atoms floating around in these nebulae, and when they stuck together that [...]

What is sulphur? Atoms, elements, chemistry

By |2017-06-02T17:25:58-07:00June 2nd, 2017|Chemistry|

Diagram of a sulphur atom Sulphur atoms fall near the middle of the scale: they are heavier than silicon but lighter than iron. Every atom of sulphur has 16 protons and generally 16 neutrons. Like silicon and iron, all atoms of sulphur are made inside stars that are getting older and have used [...]